Name: James II, King of Britain Stuart <<$>>-<<<
Given Name: James II, King of Britain
_AKA: King of Great /Britain/
Birth: 14 Oct 1633 in St James Palace,London,England
Christening: 24 Nov 1633 St James Palace,London,England
Death: 6 Sep 1701 in St Germain-en-Laye,Seine-et-Oise,France of died three weeks after suffering a stroke
Burial: St Germain-en-Laye,Seine-et-Oise,France
Residence: Château of St. Germain-en-Laye,France
Reign BET 1685 AND 1688
Name Suffix:<NSFX> II, King of Britain
Change Date: 13 Aug 2013 at 01:00:00
b. Oct. 14, 1633, London, Eng.
d. Sept. 5/6 [Sept. 16/17, New Style], 1701, Saint-Germain, France
also called (163485) DUKE OF YORK James II, detail of a painting by Sir Godfrey Kneller, c. 1685; in the National Portrait...king of Great Britain from 1685 to 1688, and the last Stuart monarch in the direct male line. He was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688 and replaced by William III and Mary II. That revolution, engendered by James's Roman Catholicism, permanently established Parliament as the ruling power of England.
James II was the second surviving son of Charles I andHenrietta Maria. He was created Duke of York in January 1634. During the English Civil Wars he lived at Oxford--from October 1642 until the city surrendered in June 1646. He was then removed by order of Parliament to St. James's Palace,from which he escaped to the Netherlands in April 1648. He rejoined his motherin France in early 1649. Joining the French army in April 1652, he served in four campaigns under the great French general Viscount de Turenne, who commendedhis courage and ability. When his brother, Charles II, concluded an alliance with Spain against France in 1656 he reluctantly changed sides, and he commandedthe right wing of the Spanish army at the Battle of the Dunes in June 1658.
Atthe restoration of his brother Charles II to the English throne in 1660, James became lord high admiral and did much to maintain the efficiency and improve theorganization of the navy. He also showed considerable interest in colonial ventures; it was on his initiative that New Amsterdam was seized from the Dutch in1664 and renamed New York in his honour. He commanded the fleet in the openingcampaigns of the Second and Third Dutch wars. This was to be his last taste ofactive military command until 1688. In politics he was a strong supporter ofthe Earl of Clarendon, whose daughter Anne he married in September 1660. Both before and after marriage he had the reputation of being as great a libertine as his brother. But in 1668 or 1669 he was admitted to the Roman Catholic church, though, on his brother's insistence, he continued to take the Anglican sacraments until 1672, and he attended Anglican services until 1676. Charles II also insisted that James's daughters, Mary and Anne, be raised in the Protestant faith.
James's conversion had little effect on his political views, which were already formed by his reverence for his dead father and his close association with the High Church party. James, in fact, was always more favourable to the Anglican church than was his Protestant brother. He welcomed the prospect of England'sreentering the European war on the side of the Dutch; and he consented to themarriage of his elder daughter, Mary, to the Protestant William of Orange in1677. For most of his life James was the spokesman of the conservative Anglican courtiers, who believed that his views on monarchy and Parliament coincided withtheirs, who found his formal and humourless nature more congenial than Charles's slippery geniality, and who respected his frank acknowledgment of his religious beliefs.
In view of the queen's childlessness, however, the conversion of the heir presumptive to the throne roused great alarm in the general public.James resigned all of his offices in 1673 rather than take an anti-Catholic oath imposed by the so-called Test Act and thus made his position known publicly.Laterthat year, his first wife having died, he gave further offense by marrying a Roman Catholic princess, Mary of Modena. By 1678 James's Roman Catholicismhad created a climate of hysteria in which the fabricated tale of a "Popish Plot" toassassinate Charles and put his brother on the throne was generally believed. From 1679 to 1681 three successive Parliaments strove to exclude James from thesuccession by statute. During this crisis James spent long periods in exile atBrussels and Edinburgh. But owing largely
James VII of Scotland
Abdication 11 Dec 1688
James II (of England and Ireland) (1633-1701), king of England, Scotland,and Ireland (1685-1688).
James was born on October 14, 1633, in London, the second surviving sonof King Charles I and his consort, Henrietta Maria. He was created dukeof York and Albany in 1634. After the execution of his father, he wastaken to the Continent, and in 1657 he entered the Spanish service in thewar against England. At the restoration of the monarchy in 1660, hisbrother became king as Charles II, and James was made lord high admiralof England. That year he married Anne Hyde, daughter of Edward Hyde, Earlof Clarendon. In 1672, a year after Anne's death, James publiclyprofessed his conversion to the Roman Catholic faith. The next year theEnglish Parliament passed the Test Acts disqualifying Catholics fromholding office, and James resigned as lord high admiral. Shortly after,he married Mary Beatrice of Modena, a Roman Catholic. In 1679 the Houseof Commons unsuccessfully attempted to bar James from the throne.
On the death of Charles in 1685, James became king. In the same year hecrushed a revolt in England by his nephew, James Scott, Duke of Monmouth,and another in Scotland led by Archibald Campbell, 9th Earl of Argyll.James alienated many supporters by his severe reprisals, especially by aseries of repressive trials, the Bloody Assizes. James attempted to winthe support of the Dissenters and the Roman Catholics in 1687 by endingreligious restrictions, but instead increased the religious tensions. Thebirth of his son, James Francis Edward Stuart, on June 10, 1688, seemedto ensure a Roman Catholic succession. The opposition leaders soonthereafter invited James's son-in-law, William of Orange, later WilliamIII, to take the English throne, thus touching off the GloriousRevolution. William landed in England in November 1688 and marched onLondon. He was hailed as a deliverer, and James, deserted by his troops,fled to France, where he was aided by King Louis XIV. In 1690, with asmall body of French troops, James landed in Ireland in an attempt toregain his throne. He was defeated in battle at the Boyne and returned toFrance, where he remained in Saint-Germain-en-Laye until his death onSeptember 16, 1701.
"James II (of England and Ireland)," Microsoft (R) Encarta. Copyright (c)1994 Microsoft Corporation. Copyright (c) 1994 Funk & Wagnall'sCorporation.
Father: Charles Edward Louis Philip Casimir I Stuart of Britain <<$>>-<<< b: 19 Nov 1600 in Dunfermline Castle,Scotland
Mother: Henrietta Maria De Bourbon of France <<$>>-<<< b: 26 Nov 1609 in Hôtel du Louvre,Paris,France
Anne Hyde <<$>>-<<< b: 12 Mar 1637 in Cranbourne Lodge,Windsor,Berkshire,England
24 Nov 1659
- Mary II Queen of Britain Stuart <<$>>-<<< b: 30 Apr 1662 in St James Palace,London,England
- James Stuart Duke of Cambridge b: 12 Jul 1663 in St James Palace,London,England
- Anne Queen of Britain Stuart <<$>>->< b: 6 Feb 1665 in St James Palace,London,England
- Charles Stuart Duke of Kendal b: 4 Jul 1666 in St James Palace,London,England
- Edgar Stuart Duke of Cambridge b: 14 Sep 1667 in St James Palace,London,England
- Henrietta Stuart b: 13 Jan 1669 in Whitehall Palace,London,England
- Catherine Stuart b: 9 Feb 1671 in Whitehall Palace,London,England
- Helene Stuart Stewart b: 1659
- Charles Of Cambridge Stuart Stewart b: 22 Oct 1660
Annabella [Arabella] Churchill <<$>>-<<< b: 1648
3 Sep 1660
in Worcester House,The Strand,London,England
- Note: possibly married in secret
- Event: Marr-Spcl
Bet Nov 1659 and 24 Dec 1659
- James Stewart [Duke of Berwick] <<$>>-<<< b: 21 Aug 1670 in Moulins, France
- Henry FitzJames b: 1673
- Arabella Ignatia FitzJames b: 1674
- Henrietta Fitzjames <<$>>-<<< b: 1667 in Westminster, Middlesex, England
- Henry Stewart [Duke of Albemarle] >< b: 1673
Maria Beatrice D'Este Modena<<$>>-<<< b: 5 Oct 1658 in ,Modena,,Italy
21 Nov 1673
married by proxy
Renewal of Vowes
- Event: Marr-Spcl
20 Sep 1673
- Catherine Stewart b: 10 Jan 1674/1675
- Isabella Stewart b: 18 Aug 1676
- Charles Stewart b: 7 Nov 1677
- Elizabeth Stewart b: 1678
- Charlotte Stewart b: 16 Aug 1682
- James Francis Edward Stewart Old Pretender <<$>>-<<< b: 10 Jun 1688 in St. James's Palace,London,England
- Louisa (Stuart) Stewart b: 28 Jun 1692