Bolinaga, Borinaga, Boliaga and other Basque Names

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  • ID: I132650
  • Name: Piroska (Eirene) Árpád
  • Given Name: Piroska (Eirene)
  • Surname: Árpád
  • Prefix: Basilissa Rhomaiôn 1
  • Sex: F
  • Birth: 1077-1090 in Esztergom, Komarom, Hungary
  • Death: 13 Aug 1134 in Bithynia, Basileía Rhomaiôn
  • Burial: Monastery of Christos Pantokrator, Konstantinoupolis, Thema Thráki, Basileía Rhomaiôn
  • Ancestral File #: 9HM8-8R 2
  • Event: She became a nun as Xena and was canonised by the Greek Orthodox church. Religious Orders 3
  • _UID: 0D7FA40609BB45C1A5753993233017BE0E0F
  • Change Date: 1 Jan 2009 at 16:08
  • OBJE:
  • FORM: jpg
  • FILE: g:\Legacy\Pictures\Byzantinischer_Mosaizist_um_1118_002.jpg
  • _SCBK: Y
  • _PRIM: Y
  • _TYPE: PHOTO
  • Note:
    Piroska of Hungary
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    Piroska of Hungary (1088 -13 August 1134 ) was a daughter of Ladislaus I of Hungary and Adelaide of Swabia. Her maternal grandparents were Rudolf of Rheinfeld and his second wife Adelheid of Savoy . Adelheid was a daughter of Ottoof Savoy and Adelaide of Turin.

    She was born in Esztergom of the modern Komárom-Esztergom administrative county. Her mother died in 1090 when Piroska was about two years old. Her father died on 29 July 1095 . Ladislaus was succeeded by his nephew Coloman of Hungary who apparently was the new guardian of orphaned Piroska.

    In an effort to improve relations with Alexios I Komnenos of the Byzantine Empire, Coloman negotiated the marriage of Piroska to John II Komnenos. John II was the eldest son of Alexios I and Irene Doukaina . He was already co-ruler of his father since 1 September 1092 and was expected to succeed him. The negotiations were successful and Piroska married John in 1104. The marriage was recorded by Joannes Zonaras and John Kinnamos.

    Following her conversion to the Eastern Orthodox Church and settlement in Constantinople, Piroska was renamed Irene. She and John had eight children. The primary source about their order of births is the chronicle of Niketas Choniates :

    Alexios Komnenos (February, 1106-1142), co-emperor from 1122 to 1142. His birth is recorded in the Alexiad by Anna Komnene .
    Maria Komnene (twin to Alexios), who married John Roger Dalassenos.
    Andronikos Komnenos (died 1142).
    Anna Komnene, married Stephanos Kontostephanos.
    Isaac Komnenos (died 1154).
    Theodora Komnene (d. 12 May 1157). , who married Manuel Anemas.
    Eudokia Komnene, who married Theodoros Vatatzes.
    Manuel I Komnenos (died 1180).

    Irene played little part in government, devoting herself to piety and their many children.Irene died on August 13 , 1134 and was later venerated as Saint Irene.




    Father: Szent Lázló Árpád b: 27 Jun 1040 in Krakow, Krakow, Poland
    Mother: Adelheid von Rheinfelden b: Abt 1058 in Schwaben, Germany, Medieval States

    Marriage 1 Ioannes "Kaloïoannes" Komnenos b: 13 Sep 1087 in Konstantinoupolis, Thema Thráki, Prefecture of Illyricum, Basileía Rhomaiôn
    • Married: May 1104 in Esztergom, Komarom, Hungary
    • Change Date: 19 Oct 2008
    Children
    1. Has Children Eudokia Komnene b: Abt 1106 in Konstantinoupolis, Thema Thráki, Prefecture of Illyricum, Basileía Rhomaiôn
    2. Has Children Alexios Komnenos b: Feb 1106 in Balabista, Thema Makedonia, Basileía Rhomaiôn
    3. Has Children Maria Komnene b: Feb 1106 in Balabista, Thema Makedonia, Basileía Rhomaiôn
    4. Has Children Andronikos Komnenos b: Abt 1108 in Balabista, Thema Makedonia, Basileía Rhomaiôn
    5. Has Children Anna Komnene b: Abt 1110 in Konstantinoupolis, Thema Thráki, Prefecture of Illyricum, Basileía Rhomaiôn
    6. Has Children Isaakios (Ioannis) Komnenos b: Abt 1115 in Konstantinoupolis, Thema Thráki, Prefecture of Illyricum, Basileía Rhomaiôn
    7. Has Children Theodora Komnene b: Abt 1116 in Konstantinoupolis, Thema Thráki, Prefecture of Illyricum, Basileía Rhomaiôn
    8. Has Children Manuel Komnenos b: 28 Nov 1118 in Konstantinoupolis, Thema Thráki, Prefecture of Illyricum, Basileía Rhomaiôn

    Sources:
    1. Media: Webdatabase
      Abbrev: Foundation for Medieval Genealogy - Byzantium 1057-1204
      Title: Foundation for Medieval Genealogy - Byzantium 1057-1204
      Author: Charles Cawley
      Publication: The Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG) is an official not-for-profit charity registered in England and Wales (Charity Commission No. 1090387). Our main objectives are: to promote rigorous scholarship in the field of medieval genealogical, prosopographical, and related research; to collect, catalogue, translate and analyse relevant primary and secondary sources; to undertake research projects, or to support such projects by financial or other means; and to disseminate information resulting from our activities by electronic or conventional means. The initial projects of the Foundation are shown below (click the text to show further info). We hope to add many further such projects as the Foundation grows, and are always open to your suggestions.
      Text: Notes from web page
      «i»Dictionnaire Historique et Généalogique des Grandes Familles de Grèce, d'Albanie et de Constantinople«/i» (2e edition Paris), p. 49.

      [1] Sturdza, p. 50.

      [2] Mikhael Psellos, Chronographia: Sewter, E. R. A. (trans.) (1966) Fourteen Byzantine Rulers, the Chronographia of Mikhael Psellus (Penguin Books).

      [3] Meineke, A. (ed.) (1836) Ioannes Cinnamus, Nicephorus Bryennius, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn).

      [4] Meineke, A. (ed.) (1836) Ioannes Cinnamus, Nicephorus Bryennius, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn).

      [5] Meineke, A. (ed.) (1835) Nicetæ Choniatæ Historia, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn).

      [6] Sewter, E. R. A. (trans.) (1969) Anna Comnena The Alexiad (Penguin Books).

      [7] Niebuhr, B. G. (ed.) (1840) Ephræmii Monachi Imperatorum et Patriarcharum, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn).

      [8] Büttner-Wobst, T. (ed.) (1897) Ioannes Zonaras, Tome III, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn).

      [9] Bekkerus, I. (ed.) (1836) Constantinus Manasses, Ioel, Georgius Acropolita, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn).

      [10] Prosopography of the Byzantine World ("PBW"), Prosopographical Reading of Byzantine Sources 1025-1102, second edition (2006.02), consulted at <http://www.pbw.kcl.ac.uk/content/index.html> (Sep 2007).

      [11] ES II 174-179.

      [12] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [13] "Nikephoros 105" in PBW (2006.2), citing Skylitzes 371.56, 372.86-73.

      [14] Sturdza, p. 274.

      [15] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [16] "Nikephoros 105" in PBW (2006.2), citing Skylitzes 371.54-56.

      [17] Runciman (1978), Vol 1, p. 55.

      [18] Alexeiad, Book 11, p. 335.

      [19] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 1, p. 17.

      [20] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 1, p. 17.

      [21] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 1, p. 17.

      [22] Alexeiad, Book 11, p. 335.

      [23] Runciman (1978), Vol 1, p. 54.

      [24] "Aikaterine 101" in PBW (2006.2), citing Skylitzes 492.51.

      [25] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 2, p. 19.

      [26] Sturdza, p. 271.

      [27] Psellos, p. 324.

      [28] Mikhael Glykas IV, p. 604.

      [29] Mikhael Glykas IV, p. 603.

      [30] Mikhael Glykas IV, p. 604.

      [31] Psellos, p. 324.

      [32] Alexeiad, Book 1, p. 37.

      [33] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 1, p. 17.

      [34] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 122, and Book 2, p. 73.

      [35] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 1, p. 17.

      [36] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 122, and Book 2, p. 73.

      [37] Sturdza, p. 271.

      [38] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [39] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 2, p. 19.

      [40] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 83.

      [41] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [42] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 2, p. 19.

      [43] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 73.

      [44] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 11, p. 32.

      [45] Alexeiad, Book 1, p. 31.

      [46] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [47] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [48] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 83.

      [49] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 2, p. 19.

      [50] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 6, p. 24.

      [51] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 103.

      [52] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 112.

      [53] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [54] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 2, p. 19.

      [55] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 73.

      [56] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, p. 66.

      [57] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber II, 28, p. 96.

      [58] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 111.

      [59] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [60] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 79.

      [61] "Eirene 65" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 2932.

      [62] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [63] Theodore Prodromos, cited in Polemis, D. I. (1968) The Doukai: A Contribution to Byzantine Prosopography (London, Athlone Press), cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [64] Sturdza, p. 274.

      [65] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [66] Polemis (1968), cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [67] Sturdza, p. 274.

      [68] Alexeiad, Book 10, p. 314.

      [69] Alexeiad, Book 8, p. 264.

      [70] Schreiner, P. "Eine unbekannte Beschreibung der Pammakaristos-kirche (Fethiye Camii) und weitere Texte zure Topographie Konstantinopels," Dumbarton Oaks Papers 25 (1971), pp. 217-48, cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [71] Alexeiad, Book 12, pp. 379 and 388.

      [72] ES II 174.

      [73] Magdalino (2002), cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [74] Magdalino (2002), cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [75] Alexeiad, Book 8, p. 265.

      [76] Sturdza, p. 247.

      [77] "Konstantinos 31" in PBW (2006.2), citing Theophylact of Ohrid 563.2.

      [78] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [79] Magdalino (2002), cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [80] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [81] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 2, p. 19.

      [82] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 6, p. 24.

      [83] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 111.

      [84] 17 Nov 1104 according to Sturdza, p. 274.

      [85] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 2, p. 19.

      [86] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 6, p. 24.

      [87] Alexeiad, Book 10, p. 296.

      [88] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 2, p. 19.

      [89] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 73.

      [90] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 2, p. 19.

      [91] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 112.

      [92] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [93] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 108.

      [94] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [95] Magdalino (2002) and Cheynet, both cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [96] Before 1086 in Sturdza p 274.

      [97] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 2, p. 19.

      [98] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 112.

      [99] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [100] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [101] Schreiner, P. "Eine unbekannte Beschreibung der Pammakaristos-kirche (Fethiye Camii) und weitere Texte zure Topographie Konstantinopels," Dumbarton Oaks Papers 25 (1971), pp. 217-48, cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [102] Polemis (1968), cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [103] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [104] Magdalino, P. (2002) The Empire of Manuel I Komnenos, 1143-1180 (Cambridge), K. Varzos (1984) He Genealogia ton Komnenon, 2 vols. (Thessaloniki, Kentron Byzantinon erevnon), and Cheynet, J.-C. and Vannier, J.-F. (1986) Études prosopographiques (Paris), cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [105] Schreiner, P. "Eine unbekannte Beschreibung der Pammakaristos-kirche (Fethiye Camii) und weitere Texte zure Topographie Konstantinopels," Dumbarton Oaks Papers 25 (1971), pp. 217-48, cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [106] Schreiner, P. "Eine unbekannte Beschreibung der Pammakaristos-kirche (Fethiye Camii) und weitere Texte zure Topographie Konstantinopels," Dumbarton Oaks Papers 25 (1971), pp. 217-48, cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [107] Sturdza, p. 274.

      [108] Morris Bierbrier, in a private email to the author dated 6 Feb 2006.

      [109] Baumgarten (1927), p. 11, citing "Œuvres de Cyrille Evêque de Tourov" p. IX.

      [110] Ortliebi Zwifaltensis Chronicon, MGH SS X, p. 90, and footnote 7.

      [111] Sturdza, p. 274.

      [112] Only three examples are noted in PBW (2006.2).

      [113] ES II 175.

      [114] Baumgarten (1927), p. 25, citing Karamzine II note 405, and p. 27.

      [115] Sturdza, p. 275.

      [116] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 2, p. 19.

      [117] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 73.

      [118] Alexeiad, Book 1, p. 31.

      [119] Fine (1991), p. 282.

      [120] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, pp. 76-7.

      [121] Alexeiad, Book 8, pp. 266-8.

      [122] Alexeiad, Book IX, p. 281.

      [123] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, pp. 102-3.

      [124] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, p. 149-52.

      [125] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [126] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber III, 6, p. 107.

      [127] Alexeiad, Book 2, pp. 91-2.

      [128] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 90.

      [129] Alexeiad, Book 1, p. 53.

      [130] Alexeiad, Book 3, pp. 105 and 110.

      [131] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber III, 6, p. 106.

      [132] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 109.

      [133] Niketas Choniates, Iohannes Komnenos, 2, p. 8.

      [134] Zonaras XVIII, 22, p. 738.

      [135] Alexeiad, Preface, p. 17.

      [136] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 208-9.

      [137] Alexeiad, Preface, p. 19.

      [138] Alexeiad, Book 6, p. 197.

      [139] Zonaras XVIII, 22, p. 739.

      [140] Alexeiad, Book 10, p. 301.

      [141] WT II.XII, p. 89.

      [142] Niketas Choniates, Iohannes Komnenos, 5, p. 23.

      [143] PC 1104, p. 202.

      [144] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber III, 17, p. 127.

      [145] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [146] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [147] Alexeiad, Book 15, p. 511.

      [148] Zonaras XVIII, 22, p. 739.

      [149] Zonaras XVIII, 22, p. 739.

      [150] Niketas Choniates, Liber II Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 7, p. 126.

      [151] Niketas Choniates, Iohannes Komnenos, 5, p. 23.

      [152] PC 1104, p. 202.

      [153] Niketas Choniates, Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, Liber 1, 8, p. 72.

      [154] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 219.

      [155] Niketas Choniates, Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, Liber 1, 8, p. 72.

      [156] Sturdza, p. 274.

      [157] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [158] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [159] Niketas Choniates, Iohannes Komnenos, 5, 11 and 12, pp. 23, 52 and 56.

      [160] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [161] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [162] WT II.XII, p. 89.

      [163] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 208.

      [164] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 210.

      [165] Sturdza, p. 271.

      [166] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 212.

      [167] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 223-4.

      [168] Zonaras XVIII, 24, p. 748.

      [169] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber I, 4, p. 9.

      [170] Macartney, Chapter 3.

      [171] Alexeiad, Book 12, p. 379.

      [172] Niketas Choniates, Liber III Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 2, p. 135.

      [173] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 222.

      [174] ES II 177.

      [175] Sturdza, p. 276.

      [176] Baumgarten (1927), p. 25, citing Byzantina Chronika IX, pp. 418-46, and XI, pp. 73-98.

      [177] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 360.

      [178] Georgian Chronicle 18, p. 110.

      [179] Niketas Choniates, Liber III Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 2, pp. 135-6.

      [180] "Maria 20117" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3040.

      [181] Sturdza, p. 276.

      [182] Alexeiad, Book 12, p. 379.

      [183] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber II, 3, p. 36.

      [184] Niketas Choniates, Liber III Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 2, p. 135.

      [185] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 222.

      [186] Niketas Choniates, Liber III Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 2, p. 135.

      [187] Niketas Choniates, Liber VII de Rebus Gesti Manuelis Comneni, 1, p. 68.

      [188] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber III, 9, p. 109.

      [189] Niketas Choniates, Liber III Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 2, p. 135.

      [190] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 347-8.

      [191] Rüdt-Collenberg (1975), p. 125, footnote 30.

      [192] ES II 177.

      [193] WT XX.I, p. 942.

      [194] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 13, p. 237.


      [195] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 370 and 377.

      [196] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CC.LXXXVII, p. 61.

      [197] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1233, MGH SS XXIII, p. 933.

      [198] Mas de Latrie, Histoire de Chypre Vol. 3, p. 608.

      [199] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Andronici Comneni, Liber 1, 8, p. 384.

      [200] Niketas Choniates, Liber III Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 2, p. 135.

      [201] Annales Mellicenses 1149, MGH SS IX, p. 504.

      [202] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 270.

      [203] Fuhrmann, p. 150.

      [204] Annales Mellicenses 1185, MGH SS IX, p. 505.

      [205] Continuatio Zwetlensis Altera 1184, MGH SS IX, p. 542.

      [206] Necrologium Seccoviense, Salzburg Necrologies (Regio Styriaca), p. 403.

      [207] Monumenta Necrologica Claustroneoburgensis, Passau Necrologies (II), p. 3.

      [208] Niketas Choniates, Liber III Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 2, p. 135.

      [209] ES II 177.

      [210] Rüdt-Collenberg (1963), p. 50, citing presumably Tschamitchan, M. History of Armenia I/II (Calcutta, 1827).

      [211] Niketas Choniates, Liber IV Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 1, p. 173.

      [212] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 8, p. 226.

      [213] Niketas Choniates, Liber III Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 2, p. 135.

      [214] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 348.

      [215] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 1, p. 293.

      [216] Niketas Choniates, Liber II Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 2, p. 103.

      [217] Niketas Choniates, Liber III Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 2, p. 135.

      [218] Niketas Choniates, Liber II Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 2, p. 106.

      [219] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Andronici Comneni, Liber 1, 4, p. 376.

      [220] ES II 177.

      [221] Morris Bierbrier, in a private email to the author dated 15 Mar 2007.

      [222] Sturdza, p. 277.

      [223] Rüdt-Collenberg (1968), p. 127.

      [224] Niketas Choniates Chronikon, ed. Bekker (Bonn, 1835), 14.

      [225] Rüdt-Collenberg (1968), p. 128, footnote 1.

      [226] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Andronici Comneni, Liber 1, 4, p. 376.

      [227] Rüdt-Collenberg (1968), p. 130, citing Nephytos 'Presbyter De Calamitatibus Cypri', Patrologia Græca, 135 (Paris, 1864), 4.

      [228] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Andronici Comneni, Liber 1, 4, p. 377.

      [229] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber VI, 6, p. 268.

      [230] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber IV, 1, p. 135.

      [231] Niketas Choniates, Liber IV Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 1, p. 165.

      [232] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 1, p. 203.

      [233] WT XVIII.XXII, p. 857.

      [234] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 13, p. 237.

      [235] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 349-50.

      [236] WT XX.II, p. 943.

      [237] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 2, p. 295.

      [238] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 378-9.

      [239] ES II 175.

      [240] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [241] Sturdza, p. 277.

      [242] Kerbl, R. (1979) Byzantinische Prinzessinnen in Ungarn zwischen 1050-1200 und ihr Einfluß auf das Arpadenkönigreich (VWGÖ, Vienna), p. 149.

      [243] Ioannes Kinnamos I, 9, p. 21.

      [244] "Andronikos 17010" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3038.

      [245] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber III, 10, p. 114.

      [246] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 351.

      [247] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIIII, p. 93.

      [248] Sturdza, p. 276.

      [249] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 429.

      [250] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CC.LXXXXVII, p. 77.

      [251] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XLVI, p. 110.

      [252] ES II 177. She was born in 1164, according to Rüdt-Collenberg (1968), p. 165, footnote 3.

      [253] Sturdza, p. 276.

      [254] Barzos, K. [Genealogy of the Komnenoi], vol. II, p. 14, n. 19 . [J.-C. Chuat]

      [255] D'Aigrefeuille Histoire de Montpellier, pp. 67-8.

      [256] Annali Pisani. Continuazione volgara, 1179, pp. 67-8, available at <http://dante.di.unipi.it/ricerca/html/anp.html> (25 Nov 2006).

      [257] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 4, p. 301.

      [258] Grume, V. Les Regestes du Patriarcat de Constantinople (Paris, 1932), Reg. 1162, cited in Rüdt-Collenberg (1968), Table I.

      [259] Magdalino (2002), and Cheynet, both cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [260] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Andronici Comneni, Liber 1, 6, p. 386.

      [261] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 3, 6, p. 697.

      [262] Sturdza, p. 271.

      [263] Ioannes Kinnamos I, 9, p. 21.

      [264] Niketas Choniates, Liber VII de Rebus Gesti Manuelis Comneni, 1, p. 66.

      [265] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 351.

      [266] Fine (1991), pp. 242-43.

      [267] Runciman (1978), pp. 412-4.

      [268] Sturdza, p. 271.

      [269] Niketas Choniates, Liber VII Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 7, p. 286.

      [270] Otto of Freising, Gesta, I xxv, p. 55.

      [271] Although this obligation was subsequently confirmed by the Treaty of Thessaloniki in end 1148, see Houben, p. 90.

      [272] Houben, p.. 89.

      [273] WT XXII.IV, p. 1067.

      [274] Monumenta Necrologica Claustroneoburgensis, Passau Necrologies (II), p. 3.

      [275] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 4, p. 208.

      [276] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 4, p. 208.

      [277] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 359.

      [278] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIIII, p. 93, and Le Vaticanus Latinus 7806, El parentado de Beimonte principe 9, p. 172.

      [279] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 4, p. 209.

      [280] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 358.

      [281] Sturdza, p. 271.

      [282] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 4, p. 301.

      [283] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [284] Niketas Choniates, Liber IV Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 1, p. 167.

      [285] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 5, p. 215.

      [286] Niketas Choniates, Liber V Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 8, p. 221.

      [287] Romoaldi Annales, MGH SS XIX, pp. 436 and 439.

      [288] Parker, J. 'The Attempted Byzantine Alliance with the Sicilian Norman Kingdom (1166-7)', Greierson, P. and Perkins, J. W. (eds.) (1956) Studies in Italian Medieval History, presented to Miss E. M. Jamison, Papers of the British School at Rome Volume XXIV (New Series, Volume XI) (British School at Rome, London), pp. 86-93, and Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 403.

      [289] Niketas Choniates, Liber V Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 8, p. 222.

      [290] WT XXII.IV, p. 1067.

      [291] Robert de Torigny, Vol. II, p. 87.

      [292] Fine (1991), pp. 239-40.

      [293] Fine (1991), p. 243.

      [294] WT XXII.IV, p. 1066.

      [295] Sicardi Episcopi Cremonensis Cronica, MGH SS XXXI, p. 173.

      [296] Fine (1994), p. 63.

      [297] Ioannes Kinnamos V, 1, p. 202.

      [298] WT XXII.IV, p. 1066.

      [299] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 1, p. 291.

      [300] Benedict of Peterborough I 1179, p. 230.

      [301] WT XXII.IV, p. 1066.

      [302] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1164, MGH SS XXIII, p. 848.

      [303] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Andronici Comneni, Liber 1, 1, p. 357.

      [304] Benedict of Peterborough I 1183, p. 234.

      [305] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 4, p. 301.

      [306] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 417.

      [307] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [308] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 15, p. 337.

      [309] ES II 175.

      [310] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 332.

      [311] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 396.

      [312] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 364-5.

      [313] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 377-9.

      [314] Fine (1994), p. 6.

      [315] ES II 175.

      [316] Sturdza, p. 275.

      [317] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1164, MGH SS XXIII, p. 848.

      [318] WT XXII.IV, p. 1066.

      [319] Benedict of Peterborough I 1179, p. 230.

      [320] Benedict of Peterborough I 1183, p. 234.

      [321] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Andronici Comneni, Liber 1, 1, p. 357.

      [322] Villehardouin, 18, p. 133.

      [323] Niketas Choniates, Liber III Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 2, p. 135.

      [324] Niketas Choniates, Liber IV Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 1, p. 173.

      [325] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 8, p. 226.

      [326] Niketas Choniates, Liber IV Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 1, pp. 181-2.

      [327] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 2, p. 295.

      [328] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 378-9.

      [329] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 11, p. 323.

      [330] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 17, p. 348.

      [331] ES II 176.

      [332] Sturdza, p. 280.

      [333] Niketas Choniates, Liber de Rebus post captam urbem gestis, 16, p. 842.

      [334] Niketas Choniates, Liber de Rebus post captam urbem gestis, 16, p. 842.

      [335] Sturdza, p. 278.

      [336] Gardner, pp. 86-7.

      [337] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 11, p. 323.



      [338] Niketas Choniates, Liber IV Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 1, p. 185.

      [339] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 412.

      [340] MB in a private email to the author dated 10 Dec 2006.

      [341] Sturdza, p. 274.

      [342] Niketas Choniates, Liber IV Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 1, p. 185.

      [343] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 15, p. 337.

      [344] Niketas Choniates, Liber IV Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 1, p. 185.

      [345] Fine (1994), p. 28.

      [346] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 1, 2, p. 605.

      [347] Ephræmius 6445, p. 263.

      [348] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 3, 2, p. 674.

      [349] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 1, 2 and 6, pp. 620 and 623.

      [350] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 3, 7, p. 709.

      [351] Fine (1994), p. 28-9.

      [352] Fine (1994), pp. 30-1.

      [353] Whose wife was Maria Angelina, paternal aunt of Emperor Alexios III.

      [354] Fine (1994), p. 32.

      [355] Georgii Monachi Vitæ Recentiorum Imperatorum (referred to as Georgius Monachus Continuatus in PBE I CD-Rom), De Leone Basilii filii, 38, p. 867.

      [356] ES II 178.

      [357] Georgii Monachi Vitæ Recentiorum Imperatorum (referred to as Georgius Monachus Continuatus in PBE I CD-Rom), De Leone Basilii filii, 38, p. 867.

      [358] Theophanes Continuatus, VI, Constantini Leonis filii imperium, 2-4, pp. 381-84.

      [359] Theophanes Continuatus, VI, Constantini Leonis filii imperium, 3, p. 383.

      [360] Theophanes Continuatus, VI, Constantini Leonis filii imperium, 4, p. 384.

      [361] Georgii Monachi Vitæ Recentiorum Imperatorum (referred to as Georgius Monachus Continuatus in PBE I CD-Rom), De Leone Basilii filii, 38, p. 867.

      [362] Theophanes Continuatus, VI, Constantini Leonis filii imperium, 3, p. 383.

      [363] Theophanes Continuatus, VI, Constantini Leonis filii imperium, 3, p. 383.

      [364] Theophanes Continuatus, VI, Constantini Leonis filii imperium, 3, p. 383.

      [365] Psellos, p. 326.

      [366] Sturdza, p. 293.

      [367] "Andronikos 20128" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3390.

      [368] Psellos, p. 326.

      [369] Psellos, p. 342.

      [370] Runciman (1978), Vol 1, pp. 66-7.

      [371] Alexeiad, Book 1, p. 59.

      [372] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [373] "Leon 2103" in PBW (2006.2), citing '?p?t?f??? e?? ??????? ?a?s???ssa?', in Kurtz, E. and Drexl, F. (1936) Michaelis Pselli Scripta minora magnam partem adhuc inedita I (Milan), pp. 155-189, 159.

      [374] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [375] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 110.

      [376] Mikhael Glykas IV, pp. 611-2.

      [377] Psellos, pp. 360-1.

      [378] Theodore Prodromos, cited in Polemis (1968), cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [379] Polemis (1968), cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [380] Sturdza, p. 274.

      [381] Theodore Prodromos, cited in Polemis (1968), cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [382] Sturdza, p. 274.

      [383] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [384] "Maria 20115" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 2999.

      [385] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 110.

      [386] Mikhael Glykas IV, pp. 611-2.

      [387] Psellos, p. 365, footnote 1.

      [388] Psellos, p. 362.

      [389] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [390] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber III, 6, p. 106.

      [391] Alexeiad, Book 2, pp. 85 and 87.

      [392] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [393] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 90.

      [394] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [395] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [396] "Konstantinos 130" in PBW (2006.2), citing Theophylact of Ohrid 461.19, 549.20, 571.16.

      [397] Polemis (1968), cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [398] Schreiner, P. "Eine unbekannte Beschreibung der Pammakaristos-kirche (Fethiye Camii) und weitere Texte zure Topographie Konstantinopels," Dumbarton Oaks Papers 25 (1971), pp. 217-48, cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [399] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [400] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [401] Alexeiad, Book 2, pp. 86-7.

      [402] Alexeiad, Book 2, pp. 91-2.

      [403] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 90.

      [404] Alexeiad, Book 1, p. 53.

      [405] Alexeiad, Book 3, pp. 105 and 110.

      [406] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber III, 6, p. 106.

      [407] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 109.

      [408] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [409] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 87.

      [410] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 90.

      [411] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [412] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber III, 6, p. 106.

      [413] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [414] Schreiner, P. "Eine unbekannte Beschreibung der Pammakaristos-kirche (Fethiye Camii) und weitere Texte zure Topographie Konstantinopels," Dumbarton Oaks Papers 25 (1971), pp. 217-48, cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [415] Chronicon Ottonis Frisingensis VII. 21, MGH SS XX, p. 259.

      [416] Sturdza, p. 293.

      [417] Kerbl, p. 78.

      [418] Niketas Choniates, Liber VI Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 1, p. 233.

      [419] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Andronici Comneni, Liber 1, 4, p. 377.

      [420] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber VI, 6, p. 268.

      [421] Sturdza, pp. 208 and 277.

      [422] Morris Bierbrier, in a private email to the author dated 18 Jan 2007.

      [423] ES II 179.

      [424] Chronicon Posoniense, p. 57.

      [425] ES II 154.

      [426] Sturdza, p. 293.

      [427] Psellos, p. 326.

      [428] Runciman (1978), pp. 55-8.

      [429] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, p. 61.

      [430] Psellos, p. 331, footnote 2.

      [431] Psellos, p. 343.

      [432] Psellos, pp. 333-4.

      [433] Zonaras XVII, 14, p. 589.

      [434] Psellos, p. 343.

      [435] Mikhael Attaliota, p. 56.

      [436] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 6, p. 23.

      [437] Psellos, p. 343, footnote 3.

      [438] Psellos, pp. 348-9.

      [439] Psellos, p. 334.

      [440] Mikhael Glykas IV, p. 606.

      [441] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 6, p. 23.

      [442] Psellos, p. 334.

      [443] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, p. 61.

      [444] Psellos, p. 359.

      [445] Runciman (1978), Vol 1, pp. 66-7.

      [446] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, p. 68.

      [447] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), pp. 329-30.

      [448] Zonaras XVIII, 17, p. 714.

      [449] Alexeiad, Book 1, p. 37.

      [450] Psellos, p. 373.

      [451] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [452] Romoaldi Annales 1076, MGH SS XIX, p. 407.

      [453] Alexeiad, Book 1, pp. 53 and 57-8.

      [454] Amatus VII.26, p. 178.

      [455] Houts, p. 252 footnote 83.

      [456] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. IV, Book VII, p. 15.

      [457] Zonaras XVIII, 22, p. 738.

      [458] Mikhael Glykas IV, p. 607.

      [459] Psellos, p. 340.

      [460] Mikhael Glykas IV, p. 607.

      [461] Psellos, p. 340.

      [462] Psellos, p. 340.

      [463] Mikhael Glykas IV, p. 606.

      [464] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 6, p. 23.


      [465] Psellos, p. 340.

      [466] Psellos, p. 374.

      [467] Mikhael Glykas IV, p. 606.

      [468] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 6, p. 23.

      [469] Psellos, p. 340.

      [470] Psellos, pp. 345 and 346.

      [471] Psellos, p. 375, footnote 1.

      [472] Alexeiad, Book 4, p. 148.

      [473] Mikhael Glykas IV, p. 607.

      [474] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 108.

      [475] Magdalino (2002) and Cheynet, both cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [476] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [477] "Theodotos 20108" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3677.

      [478] "Adralestos 20101" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seals 287 and 4370.

      [479] "Baasakios 20102" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 4371.

      [480] "Pankratios 20101" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seals 773 and 4073.

      [481] Psellos, p. 350.

      [482] Zonaras XVIII, 10, p. 684.

      [483] Mikhael Glykas IV, p. 607.

      [484] Psellos, p. 350.

      [485] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, p. 61.

      [486] Psellos, pp. 348-9.

      [487] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 6, p. 24.

      [488] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber II, 29, p. 99.

      [489] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 6, p. 24.

      [490] Alexeiad, Book 10, p. 296.

      [491] ES III 181.

      [492] Amatus I.11, p. 48.

      [493] Alexeiad, Book 4, p. 144, and Book 9, p. 280.

      [494] Alexeiad, Book 9, p. 281.

      [495] Alexeiad, Book 7, p. 224.

      [496] Alexeiad, Book 4, p. 144, and Book 9, p. 280.

      [497] Alexeiad, Book 9, p. 281.

      [498] Alexeiad, Book 9, pp. 281-7.

      [499] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [500] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [501] Kerbl, pp. 15-16.

      [502] Laurent, V. Chronologie, p. 246 (28), cited in Kerbl, p. 18.

      [503] Kerbl, p. 19.

      [504] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, pp. 68-9.

      [505] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 75.

      [506] "Bebdene 101" in PBW (2006.2), citing Skylitzes Continuatus 181.22-23.

      [507] Alexeiad, Book 1, p. 37.

      [508] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 83.

      [509] "Theodoulos 102" in PBW (2006.2), citing Skylitzes Continuatus 185.24.

      [510] "Leon 20113" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 241.

      [511] "Eustratios 20120" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seals 3831 and 3832.

      [512] "Manuel 20136" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 4445.

      [513] Sturdza, p. 207.

      [514] ES II 179.

      [515] ES II 179.

      [516] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber III, 12, p. 120.

      [517] Niketas Choniates, Liber II Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 7, p. 126.

      [518] Niketas Choniates, Liber VI Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 1, p. 233.

      [519] Sturdza, p. 208.

      [520] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [521] ES II 179.

      [522] Niketas Choniates, Liber VI Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 1, p. 233.

      [523] Fine (1994), pp. 27 and 32.

      [524] ES II 179.

      [525] Ioannes Kinnamos IV, 7, pp. 47 and 52.

      [526] Ioannes Kinnamos IV, 6, p. 148, IV, 11, p. 162 and V, 13, p. 238.

      [527] ES II 179.

      [528] ES II 179.

      [529] Georgius Akropolites 51, p. 107.

      [530] Niketas Choniates, Liber VI Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 1, p. 233.

      [531] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Andronici Comneni, Liber 1, 2, p. 365.

      [532] Sturdza, p. 208.

      [533] ES II 179.

      [534] Gardner, p. 115.

      [535] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 9, p. 319.

      [536] Fine (1994), pp. 27-8.

      [537] Fine (1994), p. 60.

      [538] Michell, R. and Forbes, N (trans.) (1914) The Chronicle of Novgorod 1016-1471 (London), 1204, pp. 43-8.

      [539] Fine (1994), pp. 63-4.

      [540] Fine (1994), p. 66.

      [541] Gardner, p. 64.

      [542] Gardner, p. 83.

      [543] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 1, 1, p. 601.

      [544] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 2, 2, p. 642.

      [545] Gardner, p. 90.

      [546] Ephræmius 7565, p. 306.

      [547] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 1, 2, p. 605.

      [548] Ephræmius 6440, p. 263.

      [549] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 3, 2, p. 674.

      [550] Georgius Akropolites 5, p. 10.

      [551] Birth date range estimated from the birth of her daughter by her first marriage [before 1196].

      [552] Gardner, p. 115.

      [553] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 1, 2, p. 605.

      [554] Ephræmius 6445, p. 263.

      [555] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 3, 2, p. 674.

      [556] Georgius Akropolites 5, p. 10.

      [557] Fine (1994), p. 28.

      [558] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 3, 7, p. 700.

      [559] Fine (1994), p. 26.

      [560] Fine (1994), p. 46.

      [561] Niketas Choniates, Alexius Ducas Murzuflus, 3, p. 755.

      [562] Georgius Akropolites 5, p. 10.

      [563] Villehardouin, 14, p. 99.

      [564] Ephræmius 7295, p. 296.

      [565] Georgius Akropolites 8, p. 15.

      [566] Fine (1994), pp. 64-5.

      [567] Fine (1994), p. 64.

      [568] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Andronici Comneni, Liber 1, 3, p. 374.

      [569] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 9, p. 319.

      [570] Fine (1994), p. 9.

      [571] Fine (1994), p. 14.

      [572] Fine (1994), p. 15.

      [573] Fine (1994), p. 24-25.

      [574] Fine (1994), pp. 25-26.

      [575] Fine (1994), p. 27.

      [576] Fine (1994), p. 11.

      [577] Hiestand, R. Jarhbuch für österreichischen Byzantinistik 47 (1997), pp. 199-208, citing Böhmer Fontes rerum Germanicarum IV (1868), pp. 323-4.

      [578] "Konstantinos 216" in PBW (2006.2), citing Branouse, E. and Nystazopoulou-Pelekidou, M. (1980) ???a?t??? ????afa t?? µ???? ??tµ?? 1. ??t???at?????, 2. ??µ?s??? ?e?t?????? (Athens) Vol. 2, p. 131.14.

      [579] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1167, MGH SS XXIII, pp. 849-50.

      [580] Fine (1994), p. 10.

      [581] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Isaacii Angeli, Liber 1, 4, p. 481.

      [582] Fine (1994), p. 11.

      [583] Villehardouin, 11, p. 82, and 12, p. 92.

      [584] Fine (1994), p. 63.

      [585] Cronica Fratris Salimbene de Adam, Ordinis Minorem 1204, MGH SS XXXII, p. 25.

      [586] Villehardouin, 13, p. 96.

      [587] Georgius Akropolites 8, p. 15.

      [588] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Isaacii Angeli, Liber 3, 1, p. 549.

      [589] Hiestand, R. Jarhbuch für österreichischen Byzantinistik 47 (1997), pp. 199-208, citing Böhmer Fontes rerum Germanicarum IV (1868), pp. 323-4.

      [590] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Isaacii Angeli, Liber 3, 1, p. 549.

      [591] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Annales 1191, MGH SS XIX, p. 325.

      [592] Annales Casenses 1193, MGH SS XIX, p. 317.

      [593] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 2, 1, p. 635.

      [594] WTC XXIII.XVI, p. 24, and XXIV.IX, p. 118.

      [595] Continuatio Admuntensis 1194, MGH SS IX, p. 587.

      [596] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 112.

      [597] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 115.

      [598] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Isaacii Angeli, Liber 3, 1, p. 549.

      [599] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 112.

      [600] Sturdza, p. 476.

      [601] Sturdza, p. 477.

      [602] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 117-18.

      [603] Niketas Choniates, pp. 718-26, cited in Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 119.

      [604] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 119.

      [605] Gardner, p. 47.

      [606] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 120-1.

      [607] Sturdza, p. 207.

      [608] Fennell, p. 24.

      [609] Hiestand, R. Jarhbuch für österreichischen Byzantinistik 47 (1997), pp. 199-208, citing Böhmer Fontes rerum Germanicarum IV (1868), pp. 323-4.

      [610] Gardner, p. 83.

      [611] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber III, 9, p. 109.

      [612] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Isaacii Angeli, Liber 1, 6, p. 489.

      [613] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Isaacii Angeli, Liber 1, 7, p. 497.

      [614] Cronica Fratris Salimbene de Adam, Ordinis Minorem 1185, MGH SS XXXII, p. 4.

      [615] ES II 179.

      [616] Continuatio Admuntensis 1203, MGH SS IX, p. 590.

      [617] Annales Mellicenses 1203, MGH SS IX, p. 506.

      [618] Monumenta Necrologica S Rudperti Salisburgensis, Salzburg Necrologies, p. 91.

      [619] Necrologium Monasterii Campi Liliorum, Passau Necrologies (II), p. 368.

      [620] Monumenta Necrologica Claustroneoburgensis, Passau Necrologies (II), p. 3.

      [621] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 120.

      [622] Gardner, p. 48.

      [623] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 122.

      [624] Gardner, p. 63, and Sturdza, p. 207.

      [625] Niketas Choniates, p. 749.

      [626] Niketas Choniates, Alexius Ducas Murzuflus, 3, p. 755.

      [627] Georgius Akropolites 5, p. 10.

      [628] Villehardouin, 14, p. 99.

      [629] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber III, 67, p. 109.

      [630] Alexeiad, Book 1, pp. 37-8.

      [631] Alexeiad, Book 1, pp. 39-40.

      [632] Alexeiad, Book 1, pp. 40-1.

      [633] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber III, 67, p. 109.

      [634] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber III, 67, p. 109.

      [635] Alexeiad, Preface, p. 19.

      [636] Niketas Choniates, Liber II Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 7, p. 125.

      [637] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber IV, 12, p. 165.

      [638] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 4, p. 210.

      [639] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [640] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Isaacii Angeli, Liber 3, 2, p. 556.

      [641] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [642] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [643] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [644] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 4, p. 210.

      [645] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 4, p. 210.

      [646] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [647] Theophanes AM 6258.

      [648] Theophanes AM 6263.

      [649] Genesius, Liber 1, De Leone Amalekita, p. 11.

      [650] Ostrogorsky, p. 232.

      [651] 17 Nov 1104 according to Sturdza, p. 274.

      [652] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 11, p. 32.

      [653] Alexeiad, Book 2, pp. 92-4.

      [654] Alexeiad, Book 3, IV.

      [655] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 6, p. 24.

      [656] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 111.

      [657] Georgius Akropolites 49, p. 98.

      [658] Sturdza, p. 344.

      [659] Sturdza, p. 344.

      [660] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber II, 3, p. 33.

      [661] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber II, 13, p. 70.

      [662] Fine (1994), p. 9.

      [663] Fine (1994), p. 14.

      [664] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Isaacii Angeli, Liber 1, 7, p. 502.

      [665] Gardner, pp. 72-3.

      [666] Fine (1994), p. 85.

      [667] Villehardouin, 18, p. 133.

      [668] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1205 and 1235, MGH SS XXIII, pp. 885 and 939.

      [669] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber II, 5, p. 97
      Note:
      BYZANTIUM 1057-1204

      RETURN TO CONTENTS

      TABLE OF CONTENTS

      INTRODUCTION. 2

      Chapter 1. KOMNENOS. 4

      A. EMPERORS 1057-1059, 1081-1185. 4

      ISAAKIOS I 1057-1059. 4

      ALEXIOS I 1081-1118. 17

      IOANNES II 1118-1143. 22

      MANUEL I 1143-1180, ALEXIOS II 1180-1183. 34

      ANDRONIKOS I 1183-1185. 38

      Chapter 2. EMPERORS, DOUKAS. 44

      A. ORIGINS, Anti-Emperor 913. 44

      B. EMPERORS 1059-1068, 1071-1078. 52

      KONSTANTINOS X 1059-1067, MIKHAEL VII 1071-1078. 52

      Chapter 3. EMPEROR, Diogenes 1068-1071. 57

      ROMANOS IV 1068-1072. 58

      Chapter 4. EMPEROR, Botaneiates 1078-1081. 61

      NIKEPHOROS III 1078-1081. 61

      Chapter 5. EMPERORS, Angelos 63

      A. ORIGINS.. 63

      B. EMPERORS 1185-1195. 66

      ISAAKIOS II 1185-1195 & 1203-1204, ALEXIOS III 1195-1203, ALEXIOS IV 1203-1204. 66

      Chapter 6. EMPEROR, Murzuphlos 1204. 75

      ALEXIOS V 1204. 75

      Chapter 7. FAMILIES of ANTI-EMPERORS. 76

      A. BRYENNIOS, 1078. 76

      B. MELISSENOS, 1078. 79

      C. BRANAS, 1186. 81

      INTRODUCTION

      The Komnenos family of emperors succeeded in 1057 after Isaakios Komnenos defeated the imperial army of Emperor Mikhael VI Stratiotikos, the unpopular successor appointed by Empress Theodora. Years of corruption and outside aggression had depleted the empire of economic resources and territory. The recovery process was initiated during Emperor Isaakios's brief reign. However, during the interlude between his abdication in 1059 and the accession of Emperor Alexios I in 1081, the Doukas, Diogenes and Botaneiates families provided emperors. These were unsuccessful times for the empire, which was attacked by the Normans of Apulia in the west and the Seljuk Turks in the east, and in addition suffered incompetent internal government. Emperor Alexios resumed the process of reconstruction. He carried out a major reorganisation of the administration of the empire, aimed at lightening the bureaucracy, and introduced a range of new titles which he distributed to the numerous potential challengers from his own and other ex-imperial families: in descending order of precedence, sébastos, protosébastos, panhypersébastos, sébastohypertatos, pansébastohypertatos, and protopansébastohypertatos. The grand admiral of the fleet became megas dux, and the two domestikoi of the west and the east received the title megas domestikos. He also created the office of logothetis ton sekreton, in charge of all civil administration of the empire. The themes (regional provinces) were reduced in size and importance. The governors of the themes were henceforth all called dux, and their deputies katepan. The title strategos disappeared. Aiming to humiliate the senatorial class, Alexios also removed the need for acclamation by the senate after the election of the emperor[1].

      The successors of Emperor Manuel Komnenos were unable to maintain their grip on power. Emperor Manuel's young son Alexios fell under the influence of his mother, a Latin princess from Antioch. Emperor Andronikos I, the last Komnenos emperor, is remembered for his cruel excesses in attempting to suppress opposition and in 1185 he was overthrown by Isaakios Angelos. Unfortunately for the future of the empire, the Angelos rulers proved to be corrupt and profligate. The Fourth Crusade in the early years of the 13th century was used by the western allies as a pretext to conquer Byzantium. In March 1204, the crusaders and the Venetians agreed to partition the empire: one quarter of its territory would be allocated to the newly created Latin empire of Constantinople, while the remainder would be divided equally between the leaders of the crusade and Venice. Venice renounced direct sovereignty over its share, which included Epirus, Acarnania, Etolia and Peloponnesos, but took direct possession of Durazzo and Ragusa on the Adriatic coast, the ports of Koron and Modon in Peloponnesos, and Adrianople. The crusaders took control of Constantinople 13 April 1204, massacring a large part of the population.

      The Byzantine primary sources so far consulted in the preparation of the present document, which covers the period 1057 to 1204, are the Chronographia of Mikhael Psellos[2], the History of Ioannes Kinnamos[3], the History of Nikephoros Briennios[4], the History of Niketas Choniates[5], the Alexeiad of Anna Comnena[6], the History of Ephræmius[7], the History of Ioannes Zonaras[8], and the Annales of Georgios Akropolitos[9]. The extracts are quoted from the Latin translations, in the case of sources in the nineteenth century Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ series, rather than the original Greek (unless a conflict is obvious), because it is assumed that more users of Medieval Lands will be familiar with Latin than Greek (also because the compiler has only restricted knowledge of the Greek language). The on-line Prosopography of the Byzantine World database (2006.02) produced by King's College, London[10] has also been consulted, especially for Skylitzes and Skylitzes Continuatus (the original texts of which have not been seen) and seals. References in western primary sources to the Byzantine emperors and their families have also been incorporated. General historical information has been extracted and incorporated from secondary sources. As will be seen, there remain many relationships which have not yet been confirmed, particularly among the later generations of the younger branches of the Komnenos family. These have been reproduced in this document from the relevant tables in Europäische Stammtafeln[11], but the suspicion remains that some of the relationships were originally based on speculation, although final confirmation of this will have to await the identification and checking of more sources.

      This document has been reviewed in detail by Morris Bierbrier, who has made additions and corrections where indicated ("MB" in the footnotes), and has also supplied a copy of the list of obituaries of Empress Eirene Doukas's family[12]. I am very grateful for his helpful collaboration.
      Repository:
        Name: Foundation for Medieval Genealogy
        Vowchurch, HEREFORD HR2 0RB England

      Text: «b»m«/b» ([1104/05]) «u»«b»PIROSKA of Hungary «/u»«/b», daughter of [LÁSZLÓ I King of Hungary & his wife Adelheid von Rheinfelden] ([1085/90]-13 Aug 1134). Zonaras records that "«i»filium regem«/i»", referring to Ioannes, married "«i»Ungrorum principis filia«/i»"«u»[168]«/u». Ioannes Kinnamos records the marriage of "«i»Ioannes Imperator«/i»" and "«i»Irenam, Vladislai filiam«/i»", referring to "«i»Vladislao Hungariæ regi«/i»"«u»[169]«/u». Unfortunately, this apparently straight-forward statement cannot be accepted at face value without further analysis. The problem is that the same paragraph of Kinnamos's text also names "«i»Almus et Stephanus«/i»" as the two sons of "«i»Vladislæ Hungariæ regi«/i»", stating that "«i»Stephanus«/i»" succeeded his father and "«i»Almus«/i»" fled to "«i»imperatorem«/i»". This report of events in Hungary in the late 11th/early 12th centuries is inconsistent with other primary sources relating to the Hungarian kings, which name no King Stephen/István at that time, identify Kálmán and Álmos as the sons of King Géza I (and nephews of King László I), and suggest that Álmós's rebellion against his half-brother King Kálmán must have taken place after the estimated date of the marriage of Emperor Ioannes. The marriage of Emperor Ioannes took place during the reign of King Kálmán. It appears to have been agreed as part of the arrangements to obtain Byzantine acceptance of Hungarian territorial conquests along the Dalmatian coast«u»[170]«/u». Kálmán had poor relations with his predecessor László, who had wished to by-pass him in the Hungarian succession. The question is therefore whether Kálmán would have maintained László's children at court and included them in his "pool" of marriageable princesses. The passage in question is found in the earliest part of the narrative of Kinnamos, whose work is dated to the early part of the second half of the 12th century, so several decades after the events. Some inaccuracies in these early sections of his work would therefore not be surprising. Nevertheless, there are chronological difficulties assigning Piroska to other potential parents among the Hungarian royal family. Piroska's birth date range of [1085/90] is estimated from her having given birth to her first child in early 1106, her husband's own birth date, and also that she continued to bear children until 1119. It is therefore unlikely that she was the daughter of Géza I King of Hungary (who died in 1077) and sister of King Kálmán. King Kálmán's own birth is estimated in [1065], and his first recorded marriage took place in 1097. It is not impossible that Kálmán married earlier and that Piroska was his daughter by an otherwise unrecorded first marriage. The primary source which confirms her original Hungarian name has not yet been identified. Piroska adopted the name «b»EIRENE«/b» in Byzantium, as shown by the extract from Ioannes Kinnamos quoted above. She became a nun as «b»XENA«/b» and was canonised by the Greek Orthodox church. Her children included at least one set of twins.
      Emperor Ioannes II & his wife had eight children:
    2. Abbrev: Ancestral File (R)
      Title: Ancestral File (R)
      Author: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
      Publication: Copyright (c) 1987, June 1998, data as of 5 January 1998
      Repository:
        Name: Family History Library
        Salt Lake City, Utah 84150 USA
    3. Media: Webdatabase
      Abbrev: Foundation for Medieval Genealogy - Byzantium 1057-1204
      Title: Foundation for Medieval Genealogy - Byzantium 1057-1204
      Author: Charles Cawley
      Publication: The Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG) is an official not-for-profit charity registered in England and Wales (Charity Commission No. 1090387). Our main objectives are: to promote rigorous scholarship in the field of medieval genealogical, prosopographical, and related research; to collect, catalogue, translate and analyse relevant primary and secondary sources; to undertake research projects, or to support such projects by financial or other means; and to disseminate information resulting from our activities by electronic or conventional means. The initial projects of the Foundation are shown below (click the text to show further info). We hope to add many further such projects as the Foundation grows, and are always open to your suggestions.
      Text: Notes from web page
      «i»Dictionnaire Historique et Généalogique des Grandes Familles de Grèce, d'Albanie et de Constantinople«/i» (2e edition Paris), p. 49.

      [1] Sturdza, p. 50.

      [2] Mikhael Psellos, Chronographia: Sewter, E. R. A. (trans.) (1966) Fourteen Byzantine Rulers, the Chronographia of Mikhael Psellus (Penguin Books).

      [3] Meineke, A. (ed.) (1836) Ioannes Cinnamus, Nicephorus Bryennius, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn).

      [4] Meineke, A. (ed.) (1836) Ioannes Cinnamus, Nicephorus Bryennius, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn).

      [5] Meineke, A. (ed.) (1835) Nicetæ Choniatæ Historia, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn).

      [6] Sewter, E. R. A. (trans.) (1969) Anna Comnena The Alexiad (Penguin Books).

      [7] Niebuhr, B. G. (ed.) (1840) Ephræmii Monachi Imperatorum et Patriarcharum, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn).

      [8] Büttner-Wobst, T. (ed.) (1897) Ioannes Zonaras, Tome III, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn).

      [9] Bekkerus, I. (ed.) (1836) Constantinus Manasses, Ioel, Georgius Acropolita, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn).

      [10] Prosopography of the Byzantine World ("PBW"), Prosopographical Reading of Byzantine Sources 1025-1102, second edition (2006.02), consulted at <http://www.pbw.kcl.ac.uk/content/index.html> (Sep 2007).

      [11] ES II 174-179.

      [12] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [13] "Nikephoros 105" in PBW (2006.2), citing Skylitzes 371.56, 372.86-73.

      [14] Sturdza, p. 274.

      [15] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [16] "Nikephoros 105" in PBW (2006.2), citing Skylitzes 371.54-56.

      [17] Runciman (1978), Vol 1, p. 55.

      [18] Alexeiad, Book 11, p. 335.

      [19] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 1, p. 17.

      [20] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 1, p. 17.

      [21] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 1, p. 17.

      [22] Alexeiad, Book 11, p. 335.

      [23] Runciman (1978), Vol 1, p. 54.

      [24] "Aikaterine 101" in PBW (2006.2), citing Skylitzes 492.51.

      [25] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 2, p. 19.

      [26] Sturdza, p. 271.

      [27] Psellos, p. 324.

      [28] Mikhael Glykas IV, p. 604.

      [29] Mikhael Glykas IV, p. 603.

      [30] Mikhael Glykas IV, p. 604.

      [31] Psellos, p. 324.

      [32] Alexeiad, Book 1, p. 37.

      [33] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 1, p. 17.

      [34] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 122, and Book 2, p. 73.

      [35] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 1, p. 17.

      [36] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 122, and Book 2, p. 73.

      [37] Sturdza, p. 271.

      [38] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [39] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 2, p. 19.

      [40] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 83.

      [41] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [42] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 2, p. 19.

      [43] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 73.

      [44] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 11, p. 32.

      [45] Alexeiad, Book 1, p. 31.

      [46] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [47] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [48] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 83.

      [49] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 2, p. 19.

      [50] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 6, p. 24.

      [51] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 103.

      [52] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 112.

      [53] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [54] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 2, p. 19.

      [55] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 73.

      [56] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, p. 66.

      [57] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber II, 28, p. 96.

      [58] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 111.

      [59] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [60] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 79.

      [61] "Eirene 65" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 2932.

      [62] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [63] Theodore Prodromos, cited in Polemis, D. I. (1968) The Doukai: A Contribution to Byzantine Prosopography (London, Athlone Press), cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [64] Sturdza, p. 274.

      [65] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [66] Polemis (1968), cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [67] Sturdza, p. 274.

      [68] Alexeiad, Book 10, p. 314.

      [69] Alexeiad, Book 8, p. 264.

      [70] Schreiner, P. "Eine unbekannte Beschreibung der Pammakaristos-kirche (Fethiye Camii) und weitere Texte zure Topographie Konstantinopels," Dumbarton Oaks Papers 25 (1971), pp. 217-48, cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [71] Alexeiad, Book 12, pp. 379 and 388.

      [72] ES II 174.

      [73] Magdalino (2002), cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [74] Magdalino (2002), cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [75] Alexeiad, Book 8, p. 265.

      [76] Sturdza, p. 247.

      [77] "Konstantinos 31" in PBW (2006.2), citing Theophylact of Ohrid 563.2.

      [78] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [79] Magdalino (2002), cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [80] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [81] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 2, p. 19.

      [82] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 6, p. 24.

      [83] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 111.

      [84] 17 Nov 1104 according to Sturdza, p. 274.

      [85] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 2, p. 19.

      [86] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 6, p. 24.

      [87] Alexeiad, Book 10, p. 296.

      [88] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 2, p. 19.

      [89] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 73.

      [90] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 2, p. 19.

      [91] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 112.

      [92] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [93] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 108.

      [94] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [95] Magdalino (2002) and Cheynet, both cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [96] Before 1086 in Sturdza p 274.

      [97] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 2, p. 19.

      [98] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 112.

      [99] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [100] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [101] Schreiner, P. "Eine unbekannte Beschreibung der Pammakaristos-kirche (Fethiye Camii) und weitere Texte zure Topographie Konstantinopels," Dumbarton Oaks Papers 25 (1971), pp. 217-48, cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [102] Polemis (1968), cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [103] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [104] Magdalino, P. (2002) The Empire of Manuel I Komnenos, 1143-1180 (Cambridge), K. Varzos (1984) He Genealogia ton Komnenon, 2 vols. (Thessaloniki, Kentron Byzantinon erevnon), and Cheynet, J.-C. and Vannier, J.-F. (1986) Études prosopographiques (Paris), cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [105] Schreiner, P. "Eine unbekannte Beschreibung der Pammakaristos-kirche (Fethiye Camii) und weitere Texte zure Topographie Konstantinopels," Dumbarton Oaks Papers 25 (1971), pp. 217-48, cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [106] Schreiner, P. "Eine unbekannte Beschreibung der Pammakaristos-kirche (Fethiye Camii) und weitere Texte zure Topographie Konstantinopels," Dumbarton Oaks Papers 25 (1971), pp. 217-48, cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [107] Sturdza, p. 274.

      [108] Morris Bierbrier, in a private email to the author dated 6 Feb 2006.

      [109] Baumgarten (1927), p. 11, citing "Œuvres de Cyrille Evêque de Tourov" p. IX.

      [110] Ortliebi Zwifaltensis Chronicon, MGH SS X, p. 90, and footnote 7.

      [111] Sturdza, p. 274.

      [112] Only three examples are noted in PBW (2006.2).

      [113] ES II 175.

      [114] Baumgarten (1927), p. 25, citing Karamzine II note 405, and p. 27.

      [115] Sturdza, p. 275.

      [116] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 2, p. 19.

      [117] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 73.

      [118] Alexeiad, Book 1, p. 31.

      [119] Fine (1991), p. 282.

      [120] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, pp. 76-7.

      [121] Alexeiad, Book 8, pp. 266-8.

      [122] Alexeiad, Book IX, p. 281.

      [123] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, pp. 102-3.

      [124] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, p. 149-52.

      [125] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [126] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber III, 6, p. 107.

      [127] Alexeiad, Book 2, pp. 91-2.

      [128] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 90.

      [129] Alexeiad, Book 1, p. 53.

      [130] Alexeiad, Book 3, pp. 105 and 110.

      [131] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber III, 6, p. 106.

      [132] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 109.

      [133] Niketas Choniates, Iohannes Komnenos, 2, p. 8.

      [134] Zonaras XVIII, 22, p. 738.

      [135] Alexeiad, Preface, p. 17.

      [136] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 208-9.

      [137] Alexeiad, Preface, p. 19.

      [138] Alexeiad, Book 6, p. 197.

      [139] Zonaras XVIII, 22, p. 739.

      [140] Alexeiad, Book 10, p. 301.

      [141] WT II.XII, p. 89.

      [142] Niketas Choniates, Iohannes Komnenos, 5, p. 23.

      [143] PC 1104, p. 202.

      [144] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber III, 17, p. 127.

      [145] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [146] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [147] Alexeiad, Book 15, p. 511.

      [148] Zonaras XVIII, 22, p. 739.

      [149] Zonaras XVIII, 22, p. 739.

      [150] Niketas Choniates, Liber II Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 7, p. 126.

      [151] Niketas Choniates, Iohannes Komnenos, 5, p. 23.

      [152] PC 1104, p. 202.

      [153] Niketas Choniates, Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, Liber 1, 8, p. 72.

      [154] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 219.

      [155] Niketas Choniates, Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, Liber 1, 8, p. 72.

      [156] Sturdza, p. 274.

      [157] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [158] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [159] Niketas Choniates, Iohannes Komnenos, 5, 11 and 12, pp. 23, 52 and 56.

      [160] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [161] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [162] WT II.XII, p. 89.

      [163] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 208.

      [164] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 210.

      [165] Sturdza, p. 271.

      [166] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 212.

      [167] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 223-4.

      [168] Zonaras XVIII, 24, p. 748.

      [169] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber I, 4, p. 9.

      [170] Macartney, Chapter 3.

      [171] Alexeiad, Book 12, p. 379.

      [172] Niketas Choniates, Liber III Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 2, p. 135.

      [173] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 222.

      [174] ES II 177.

      [175] Sturdza, p. 276.

      [176] Baumgarten (1927), p. 25, citing Byzantina Chronika IX, pp. 418-46, and XI, pp. 73-98.

      [177] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 360.

      [178] Georgian Chronicle 18, p. 110.

      [179] Niketas Choniates, Liber III Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 2, pp. 135-6.

      [180] "Maria 20117" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3040.

      [181] Sturdza, p. 276.

      [182] Alexeiad, Book 12, p. 379.

      [183] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber II, 3, p. 36.

      [184] Niketas Choniates, Liber III Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 2, p. 135.

      [185] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 222.

      [186] Niketas Choniates, Liber III Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 2, p. 135.

      [187] Niketas Choniates, Liber VII de Rebus Gesti Manuelis Comneni, 1, p. 68.

      [188] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber III, 9, p. 109.

      [189] Niketas Choniates, Liber III Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 2, p. 135.

      [190] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 347-8.

      [191] Rüdt-Collenberg (1975), p. 125, footnote 30.

      [192] ES II 177.

      [193] WT XX.I, p. 942.

      [194] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 13, p. 237.


      [195] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 370 and 377.

      [196] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CC.LXXXVII, p. 61.

      [197] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1233, MGH SS XXIII, p. 933.

      [198] Mas de Latrie, Histoire de Chypre Vol. 3, p. 608.

      [199] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Andronici Comneni, Liber 1, 8, p. 384.

      [200] Niketas Choniates, Liber III Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 2, p. 135.

      [201] Annales Mellicenses 1149, MGH SS IX, p. 504.

      [202] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 270.

      [203] Fuhrmann, p. 150.

      [204] Annales Mellicenses 1185, MGH SS IX, p. 505.

      [205] Continuatio Zwetlensis Altera 1184, MGH SS IX, p. 542.

      [206] Necrologium Seccoviense, Salzburg Necrologies (Regio Styriaca), p. 403.

      [207] Monumenta Necrologica Claustroneoburgensis, Passau Necrologies (II), p. 3.

      [208] Niketas Choniates, Liber III Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 2, p. 135.

      [209] ES II 177.

      [210] Rüdt-Collenberg (1963), p. 50, citing presumably Tschamitchan, M. History of Armenia I/II (Calcutta, 1827).

      [211] Niketas Choniates, Liber IV Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 1, p. 173.

      [212] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 8, p. 226.

      [213] Niketas Choniates, Liber III Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 2, p. 135.

      [214] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 348.

      [215] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 1, p. 293.

      [216] Niketas Choniates, Liber II Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 2, p. 103.

      [217] Niketas Choniates, Liber III Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 2, p. 135.

      [218] Niketas Choniates, Liber II Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 2, p. 106.

      [219] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Andronici Comneni, Liber 1, 4, p. 376.

      [220] ES II 177.

      [221] Morris Bierbrier, in a private email to the author dated 15 Mar 2007.

      [222] Sturdza, p. 277.

      [223] Rüdt-Collenberg (1968), p. 127.

      [224] Niketas Choniates Chronikon, ed. Bekker (Bonn, 1835), 14.

      [225] Rüdt-Collenberg (1968), p. 128, footnote 1.

      [226] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Andronici Comneni, Liber 1, 4, p. 376.

      [227] Rüdt-Collenberg (1968), p. 130, citing Nephytos 'Presbyter De Calamitatibus Cypri', Patrologia Græca, 135 (Paris, 1864), 4.

      [228] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Andronici Comneni, Liber 1, 4, p. 377.

      [229] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber VI, 6, p. 268.

      [230] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber IV, 1, p. 135.

      [231] Niketas Choniates, Liber IV Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 1, p. 165.

      [232] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 1, p. 203.

      [233] WT XVIII.XXII, p. 857.

      [234] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 13, p. 237.

      [235] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 349-50.

      [236] WT XX.II, p. 943.

      [237] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 2, p. 295.

      [238] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 378-9.

      [239] ES II 175.

      [240] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [241] Sturdza, p. 277.

      [242] Kerbl, R. (1979) Byzantinische Prinzessinnen in Ungarn zwischen 1050-1200 und ihr Einfluß auf das Arpadenkönigreich (VWGÖ, Vienna), p. 149.

      [243] Ioannes Kinnamos I, 9, p. 21.

      [244] "Andronikos 17010" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3038.

      [245] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber III, 10, p. 114.

      [246] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 351.

      [247] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIIII, p. 93.

      [248] Sturdza, p. 276.

      [249] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 429.

      [250] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CC.LXXXXVII, p. 77.

      [251] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XLVI, p. 110.

      [252] ES II 177. She was born in 1164, according to Rüdt-Collenberg (1968), p. 165, footnote 3.

      [253] Sturdza, p. 276.

      [254] Barzos, K. [Genealogy of the Komnenoi], vol. II, p. 14, n. 19 . [J.-C. Chuat]

      [255] D'Aigrefeuille Histoire de Montpellier, pp. 67-8.

      [256] Annali Pisani. Continuazione volgara, 1179, pp. 67-8, available at <http://dante.di.unipi.it/ricerca/html/anp.html> (25 Nov 2006).

      [257] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 4, p. 301.

      [258] Grume, V. Les Regestes du Patriarcat de Constantinople (Paris, 1932), Reg. 1162, cited in Rüdt-Collenberg (1968), Table I.

      [259] Magdalino (2002), and Cheynet, both cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [260] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Andronici Comneni, Liber 1, 6, p. 386.

      [261] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 3, 6, p. 697.

      [262] Sturdza, p. 271.

      [263] Ioannes Kinnamos I, 9, p. 21.

      [264] Niketas Choniates, Liber VII de Rebus Gesti Manuelis Comneni, 1, p. 66.

      [265] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 351.

      [266] Fine (1991), pp. 242-43.

      [267] Runciman (1978), pp. 412-4.

      [268] Sturdza, p. 271.

      [269] Niketas Choniates, Liber VII Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 7, p. 286.

      [270] Otto of Freising, Gesta, I xxv, p. 55.

      [271] Although this obligation was subsequently confirmed by the Treaty of Thessaloniki in end 1148, see Houben, p. 90.

      [272] Houben, p.. 89.

      [273] WT XXII.IV, p. 1067.

      [274] Monumenta Necrologica Claustroneoburgensis, Passau Necrologies (II), p. 3.

      [275] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 4, p. 208.

      [276] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 4, p. 208.

      [277] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 359.

      [278] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIIII, p. 93, and Le Vaticanus Latinus 7806, El parentado de Beimonte principe 9, p. 172.

      [279] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 4, p. 209.

      [280] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 358.

      [281] Sturdza, p. 271.

      [282] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 4, p. 301.

      [283] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [284] Niketas Choniates, Liber IV Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 1, p. 167.

      [285] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 5, p. 215.

      [286] Niketas Choniates, Liber V Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 8, p. 221.

      [287] Romoaldi Annales, MGH SS XIX, pp. 436 and 439.

      [288] Parker, J. 'The Attempted Byzantine Alliance with the Sicilian Norman Kingdom (1166-7)', Greierson, P. and Perkins, J. W. (eds.) (1956) Studies in Italian Medieval History, presented to Miss E. M. Jamison, Papers of the British School at Rome Volume XXIV (New Series, Volume XI) (British School at Rome, London), pp. 86-93, and Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 403.

      [289] Niketas Choniates, Liber V Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 8, p. 222.

      [290] WT XXII.IV, p. 1067.

      [291] Robert de Torigny, Vol. II, p. 87.

      [292] Fine (1991), pp. 239-40.

      [293] Fine (1991), p. 243.

      [294] WT XXII.IV, p. 1066.

      [295] Sicardi Episcopi Cremonensis Cronica, MGH SS XXXI, p. 173.

      [296] Fine (1994), p. 63.

      [297] Ioannes Kinnamos V, 1, p. 202.

      [298] WT XXII.IV, p. 1066.

      [299] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 1, p. 291.

      [300] Benedict of Peterborough I 1179, p. 230.

      [301] WT XXII.IV, p. 1066.

      [302] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1164, MGH SS XXIII, p. 848.

      [303] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Andronici Comneni, Liber 1, 1, p. 357.

      [304] Benedict of Peterborough I 1183, p. 234.

      [305] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 4, p. 301.

      [306] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 417.

      [307] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [308] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 15, p. 337.

      [309] ES II 175.

      [310] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 332.

      [311] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 396.

      [312] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 364-5.

      [313] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 377-9.

      [314] Fine (1994), p. 6.

      [315] ES II 175.

      [316] Sturdza, p. 275.

      [317] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1164, MGH SS XXIII, p. 848.

      [318] WT XXII.IV, p. 1066.

      [319] Benedict of Peterborough I 1179, p. 230.

      [320] Benedict of Peterborough I 1183, p. 234.

      [321] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Andronici Comneni, Liber 1, 1, p. 357.

      [322] Villehardouin, 18, p. 133.

      [323] Niketas Choniates, Liber III Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 2, p. 135.

      [324] Niketas Choniates, Liber IV Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 1, p. 173.

      [325] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 8, p. 226.

      [326] Niketas Choniates, Liber IV Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 1, pp. 181-2.

      [327] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 2, p. 295.

      [328] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 378-9.

      [329] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 11, p. 323.

      [330] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 17, p. 348.

      [331] ES II 176.

      [332] Sturdza, p. 280.

      [333] Niketas Choniates, Liber de Rebus post captam urbem gestis, 16, p. 842.

      [334] Niketas Choniates, Liber de Rebus post captam urbem gestis, 16, p. 842.

      [335] Sturdza, p. 278.

      [336] Gardner, pp. 86-7.

      [337] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 11, p. 323.



      [338] Niketas Choniates, Liber IV Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 1, p. 185.

      [339] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 412.

      [340] MB in a private email to the author dated 10 Dec 2006.

      [341] Sturdza, p. 274.

      [342] Niketas Choniates, Liber IV Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 1, p. 185.

      [343] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 15, p. 337.

      [344] Niketas Choniates, Liber IV Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 1, p. 185.

      [345] Fine (1994), p. 28.

      [346] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 1, 2, p. 605.

      [347] Ephræmius 6445, p. 263.

      [348] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 3, 2, p. 674.

      [349] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 1, 2 and 6, pp. 620 and 623.

      [350] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 3, 7, p. 709.

      [351] Fine (1994), p. 28-9.

      [352] Fine (1994), pp. 30-1.

      [353] Whose wife was Maria Angelina, paternal aunt of Emperor Alexios III.

      [354] Fine (1994), p. 32.

      [355] Georgii Monachi Vitæ Recentiorum Imperatorum (referred to as Georgius Monachus Continuatus in PBE I CD-Rom), De Leone Basilii filii, 38, p. 867.

      [356] ES II 178.

      [357] Georgii Monachi Vitæ Recentiorum Imperatorum (referred to as Georgius Monachus Continuatus in PBE I CD-Rom), De Leone Basilii filii, 38, p. 867.

      [358] Theophanes Continuatus, VI, Constantini Leonis filii imperium, 2-4, pp. 381-84.

      [359] Theophanes Continuatus, VI, Constantini Leonis filii imperium, 3, p. 383.

      [360] Theophanes Continuatus, VI, Constantini Leonis filii imperium, 4, p. 384.

      [361] Georgii Monachi Vitæ Recentiorum Imperatorum (referred to as Georgius Monachus Continuatus in PBE I CD-Rom), De Leone Basilii filii, 38, p. 867.

      [362] Theophanes Continuatus, VI, Constantini Leonis filii imperium, 3, p. 383.

      [363] Theophanes Continuatus, VI, Constantini Leonis filii imperium, 3, p. 383.

      [364] Theophanes Continuatus, VI, Constantini Leonis filii imperium, 3, p. 383.

      [365] Psellos, p. 326.

      [366] Sturdza, p. 293.

      [367] "Andronikos 20128" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3390.

      [368] Psellos, p. 326.

      [369] Psellos, p. 342.

      [370] Runciman (1978), Vol 1, pp. 66-7.

      [371] Alexeiad, Book 1, p. 59.

      [372] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [373] "Leon 2103" in PBW (2006.2), citing '?p?t?f??? e?? ??????? ?a?s???ssa?', in Kurtz, E. and Drexl, F. (1936) Michaelis Pselli Scripta minora magnam partem adhuc inedita I (Milan), pp. 155-189, 159.

      [374] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [375] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 110.

      [376] Mikhael Glykas IV, pp. 611-2.

      [377] Psellos, pp. 360-1.

      [378] Theodore Prodromos, cited in Polemis (1968), cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [379] Polemis (1968), cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [380] Sturdza, p. 274.

      [381] Theodore Prodromos, cited in Polemis (1968), cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [382] Sturdza, p. 274.

      [383] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [384] "Maria 20115" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 2999.

      [385] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 110.

      [386] Mikhael Glykas IV, pp. 611-2.

      [387] Psellos, p. 365, footnote 1.

      [388] Psellos, p. 362.

      [389] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [390] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber III, 6, p. 106.

      [391] Alexeiad, Book 2, pp. 85 and 87.

      [392] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [393] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 90.

      [394] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [395] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [396] "Konstantinos 130" in PBW (2006.2), citing Theophylact of Ohrid 461.19, 549.20, 571.16.

      [397] Polemis (1968), cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [398] Schreiner, P. "Eine unbekannte Beschreibung der Pammakaristos-kirche (Fethiye Camii) und weitere Texte zure Topographie Konstantinopels," Dumbarton Oaks Papers 25 (1971), pp. 217-48, cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [399] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [400] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [401] Alexeiad, Book 2, pp. 86-7.

      [402] Alexeiad, Book 2, pp. 91-2.

      [403] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 90.

      [404] Alexeiad, Book 1, p. 53.

      [405] Alexeiad, Book 3, pp. 105 and 110.

      [406] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber III, 6, p. 106.

      [407] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 109.

      [408] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [409] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 87.

      [410] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 90.

      [411] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [412] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber III, 6, p. 106.

      [413] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [414] Schreiner, P. "Eine unbekannte Beschreibung der Pammakaristos-kirche (Fethiye Camii) und weitere Texte zure Topographie Konstantinopels," Dumbarton Oaks Papers 25 (1971), pp. 217-48, cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [415] Chronicon Ottonis Frisingensis VII. 21, MGH SS XX, p. 259.

      [416] Sturdza, p. 293.

      [417] Kerbl, p. 78.

      [418] Niketas Choniates, Liber VI Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 1, p. 233.

      [419] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Andronici Comneni, Liber 1, 4, p. 377.

      [420] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber VI, 6, p. 268.

      [421] Sturdza, pp. 208 and 277.

      [422] Morris Bierbrier, in a private email to the author dated 18 Jan 2007.

      [423] ES II 179.

      [424] Chronicon Posoniense, p. 57.

      [425] ES II 154.

      [426] Sturdza, p. 293.

      [427] Psellos, p. 326.

      [428] Runciman (1978), pp. 55-8.

      [429] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, p. 61.

      [430] Psellos, p. 331, footnote 2.

      [431] Psellos, p. 343.

      [432] Psellos, pp. 333-4.

      [433] Zonaras XVII, 14, p. 589.

      [434] Psellos, p. 343.

      [435] Mikhael Attaliota, p. 56.

      [436] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 6, p. 23.

      [437] Psellos, p. 343, footnote 3.

      [438] Psellos, pp. 348-9.

      [439] Psellos, p. 334.

      [440] Mikhael Glykas IV, p. 606.

      [441] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 6, p. 23.

      [442] Psellos, p. 334.

      [443] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, p. 61.

      [444] Psellos, p. 359.

      [445] Runciman (1978), Vol 1, pp. 66-7.

      [446] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, p. 68.

      [447] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), pp. 329-30.

      [448] Zonaras XVIII, 17, p. 714.

      [449] Alexeiad, Book 1, p. 37.

      [450] Psellos, p. 373.

      [451] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [452] Romoaldi Annales 1076, MGH SS XIX, p. 407.

      [453] Alexeiad, Book 1, pp. 53 and 57-8.

      [454] Amatus VII.26, p. 178.

      [455] Houts, p. 252 footnote 83.

      [456] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. IV, Book VII, p. 15.

      [457] Zonaras XVIII, 22, p. 738.

      [458] Mikhael Glykas IV, p. 607.

      [459] Psellos, p. 340.

      [460] Mikhael Glykas IV, p. 607.

      [461] Psellos, p. 340.

      [462] Psellos, p. 340.

      [463] Mikhael Glykas IV, p. 606.

      [464] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 6, p. 23.


      [465] Psellos, p. 340.

      [466] Psellos, p. 374.

      [467] Mikhael Glykas IV, p. 606.

      [468] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 6, p. 23.

      [469] Psellos, p. 340.

      [470] Psellos, pp. 345 and 346.

      [471] Psellos, p. 375, footnote 1.

      [472] Alexeiad, Book 4, p. 148.

      [473] Mikhael Glykas IV, p. 607.

      [474] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 108.

      [475] Magdalino (2002) and Cheynet, both cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [476] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [477] "Theodotos 20108" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3677.

      [478] "Adralestos 20101" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seals 287 and 4370.

      [479] "Baasakios 20102" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 4371.

      [480] "Pankratios 20101" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seals 773 and 4073.

      [481] Psellos, p. 350.

      [482] Zonaras XVIII, 10, p. 684.

      [483] Mikhael Glykas IV, p. 607.

      [484] Psellos, p. 350.

      [485] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, p. 61.

      [486] Psellos, pp. 348-9.

      [487] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 6, p. 24.

      [488] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber II, 29, p. 99.

      [489] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 6, p. 24.

      [490] Alexeiad, Book 10, p. 296.

      [491] ES III 181.

      [492] Amatus I.11, p. 48.

      [493] Alexeiad, Book 4, p. 144, and Book 9, p. 280.

      [494] Alexeiad, Book 9, p. 281.

      [495] Alexeiad, Book 7, p. 224.

      [496] Alexeiad, Book 4, p. 144, and Book 9, p. 280.

      [497] Alexeiad, Book 9, p. 281.

      [498] Alexeiad, Book 9, pp. 281-7.

      [499] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [500] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [501] Kerbl, pp. 15-16.

      [502] Laurent, V. Chronologie, p. 246 (28), cited in Kerbl, p. 18.

      [503] Kerbl, p. 19.

      [504] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, pp. 68-9.

      [505] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 75.

      [506] "Bebdene 101" in PBW (2006.2), citing Skylitzes Continuatus 181.22-23.

      [507] Alexeiad, Book 1, p. 37.

      [508] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 83.

      [509] "Theodoulos 102" in PBW (2006.2), citing Skylitzes Continuatus 185.24.

      [510] "Leon 20113" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 241.

      [511] "Eustratios 20120" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seals 3831 and 3832.

      [512] "Manuel 20136" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 4445.

      [513] Sturdza, p. 207.

      [514] ES II 179.

      [515] ES II 179.

      [516] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber III, 12, p. 120.

      [517] Niketas Choniates, Liber II Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 7, p. 126.

      [518] Niketas Choniates, Liber VI Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 1, p. 233.

      [519] Sturdza, p. 208.

      [520] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [521] ES II 179.

      [522] Niketas Choniates, Liber VI Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 1, p. 233.

      [523] Fine (1994), pp. 27 and 32.

      [524] ES II 179.

      [525] Ioannes Kinnamos IV, 7, pp. 47 and 52.

      [526] Ioannes Kinnamos IV, 6, p. 148, IV, 11, p. 162 and V, 13, p. 238.

      [527] ES II 179.

      [528] ES II 179.

      [529] Georgius Akropolites 51, p. 107.

      [530] Niketas Choniates, Liber VI Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 1, p. 233.

      [531] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Andronici Comneni, Liber 1, 2, p. 365.

      [532] Sturdza, p. 208.

      [533] ES II 179.

      [534] Gardner, p. 115.

      [535] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 9, p. 319.

      [536] Fine (1994), pp. 27-8.

      [537] Fine (1994), p. 60.

      [538] Michell, R. and Forbes, N (trans.) (1914) The Chronicle of Novgorod 1016-1471 (London), 1204, pp. 43-8.

      [539] Fine (1994), pp. 63-4.

      [540] Fine (1994), p. 66.

      [541] Gardner, p. 64.

      [542] Gardner, p. 83.

      [543] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 1, 1, p. 601.

      [544] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 2, 2, p. 642.

      [545] Gardner, p. 90.

      [546] Ephræmius 7565, p. 306.

      [547] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 1, 2, p. 605.

      [548] Ephræmius 6440, p. 263.

      [549] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 3, 2, p. 674.

      [550] Georgius Akropolites 5, p. 10.

      [551] Birth date range estimated from the birth of her daughter by her first marriage [before 1196].

      [552] Gardner, p. 115.

      [553] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 1, 2, p. 605.

      [554] Ephræmius 6445, p. 263.

      [555] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 3, 2, p. 674.

      [556] Georgius Akropolites 5, p. 10.

      [557] Fine (1994), p. 28.

      [558] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 3, 7, p. 700.

      [559] Fine (1994), p. 26.

      [560] Fine (1994), p. 46.

      [561] Niketas Choniates, Alexius Ducas Murzuflus, 3, p. 755.

      [562] Georgius Akropolites 5, p. 10.

      [563] Villehardouin, 14, p. 99.

      [564] Ephræmius 7295, p. 296.

      [565] Georgius Akropolites 8, p. 15.

      [566] Fine (1994), pp. 64-5.

      [567] Fine (1994), p. 64.

      [568] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Andronici Comneni, Liber 1, 3, p. 374.

      [569] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 9, p. 319.

      [570] Fine (1994), p. 9.

      [571] Fine (1994), p. 14.

      [572] Fine (1994), p. 15.

      [573] Fine (1994), p. 24-25.

      [574] Fine (1994), pp. 25-26.

      [575] Fine (1994), p. 27.

      [576] Fine (1994), p. 11.

      [577] Hiestand, R. Jarhbuch für österreichischen Byzantinistik 47 (1997), pp. 199-208, citing Böhmer Fontes rerum Germanicarum IV (1868), pp. 323-4.

      [578] "Konstantinos 216" in PBW (2006.2), citing Branouse, E. and Nystazopoulou-Pelekidou, M. (1980) ???a?t??? ????afa t?? µ???? ??tµ?? 1. ??t???at?????, 2. ??µ?s??? ?e?t?????? (Athens) Vol. 2, p. 131.14.

      [579] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1167, MGH SS XXIII, pp. 849-50.

      [580] Fine (1994), p. 10.

      [581] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Isaacii Angeli, Liber 1, 4, p. 481.

      [582] Fine (1994), p. 11.

      [583] Villehardouin, 11, p. 82, and 12, p. 92.

      [584] Fine (1994), p. 63.

      [585] Cronica Fratris Salimbene de Adam, Ordinis Minorem 1204, MGH SS XXXII, p. 25.

      [586] Villehardouin, 13, p. 96.

      [587] Georgius Akropolites 8, p. 15.

      [588] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Isaacii Angeli, Liber 3, 1, p. 549.

      [589] Hiestand, R. Jarhbuch für österreichischen Byzantinistik 47 (1997), pp. 199-208, citing Böhmer Fontes rerum Germanicarum IV (1868), pp. 323-4.

      [590] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Isaacii Angeli, Liber 3, 1, p. 549.

      [591] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Annales 1191, MGH SS XIX, p. 325.

      [592] Annales Casenses 1193, MGH SS XIX, p. 317.

      [593] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 2, 1, p. 635.

      [594] WTC XXIII.XVI, p. 24, and XXIV.IX, p. 118.

      [595] Continuatio Admuntensis 1194, MGH SS IX, p. 587.

      [596] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 112.

      [597] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 115.

      [598] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Isaacii Angeli, Liber 3, 1, p. 549.

      [599] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 112.

      [600] Sturdza, p. 476.

      [601] Sturdza, p. 477.

      [602] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 117-18.

      [603] Niketas Choniates, pp. 718-26, cited in Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 119.

      [604] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 119.

      [605] Gardner, p. 47.

      [606] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 120-1.

      [607] Sturdza, p. 207.

      [608] Fennell, p. 24.

      [609] Hiestand, R. Jarhbuch für österreichischen Byzantinistik 47 (1997), pp. 199-208, citing Böhmer Fontes rerum Germanicarum IV (1868), pp. 323-4.

      [610] Gardner, p. 83.

      [611] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber III, 9, p. 109.

      [612] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Isaacii Angeli, Liber 1, 6, p. 489.

      [613] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Isaacii Angeli, Liber 1, 7, p. 497.

      [614] Cronica Fratris Salimbene de Adam, Ordinis Minorem 1185, MGH SS XXXII, p. 4.

      [615] ES II 179.

      [616] Continuatio Admuntensis 1203, MGH SS IX, p. 590.

      [617] Annales Mellicenses 1203, MGH SS IX, p. 506.

      [618] Monumenta Necrologica S Rudperti Salisburgensis, Salzburg Necrologies, p. 91.

      [619] Necrologium Monasterii Campi Liliorum, Passau Necrologies (II), p. 368.

      [620] Monumenta Necrologica Claustroneoburgensis, Passau Necrologies (II), p. 3.

      [621] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 120.

      [622] Gardner, p. 48.

      [623] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 122.

      [624] Gardner, p. 63, and Sturdza, p. 207.

      [625] Niketas Choniates, p. 749.

      [626] Niketas Choniates, Alexius Ducas Murzuflus, 3, p. 755.

      [627] Georgius Akropolites 5, p. 10.

      [628] Villehardouin, 14, p. 99.

      [629] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber III, 67, p. 109.

      [630] Alexeiad, Book 1, pp. 37-8.

      [631] Alexeiad, Book 1, pp. 39-40.

      [632] Alexeiad, Book 1, pp. 40-1.

      [633] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber III, 67, p. 109.

      [634] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber III, 67, p. 109.

      [635] Alexeiad, Preface, p. 19.

      [636] Niketas Choniates, Liber II Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 7, p. 125.

      [637] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber IV, 12, p. 165.

      [638] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 4, p. 210.

      [639] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [640] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Isaacii Angeli, Liber 3, 2, p. 556.

      [641] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [642] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [643] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [644] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 4, p. 210.

      [645] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 4, p. 210.

      [646] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [647] Theophanes AM 6258.

      [648] Theophanes AM 6263.

      [649] Genesius, Liber 1, De Leone Amalekita, p. 11.

      [650] Ostrogorsky, p. 232.

      [651] 17 Nov 1104 according to Sturdza, p. 274.

      [652] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 11, p. 32.

      [653] Alexeiad, Book 2, pp. 92-4.

      [654] Alexeiad, Book 3, IV.

      [655] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 6, p. 24.

      [656] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 111.

      [657] Georgius Akropolites 49, p. 98.

      [658] Sturdza, p. 344.

      [659] Sturdza, p. 344.

      [660] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber II, 3, p. 33.

      [661] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber II, 13, p. 70.

      [662] Fine (1994), p. 9.

      [663] Fine (1994), p. 14.

      [664] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Isaacii Angeli, Liber 1, 7, p. 502.

      [665] Gardner, pp. 72-3.

      [666] Fine (1994), p. 85.

      [667] Villehardouin, 18, p. 133.

      [668] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1205 and 1235, MGH SS XXIII, pp. 885 and 939.

      [669] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber II, 5, p. 97
      Note:
      BYZANTIUM 1057-1204

      RETURN TO CONTENTS

      TABLE OF CONTENTS

      INTRODUCTION. 2

      Chapter 1. KOMNENOS. 4

      A. EMPERORS 1057-1059, 1081-1185. 4

      ISAAKIOS I 1057-1059. 4

      ALEXIOS I 1081-1118. 17

      IOANNES II 1118-1143. 22

      MANUEL I 1143-1180, ALEXIOS II 1180-1183. 34

      ANDRONIKOS I 1183-1185. 38

      Chapter 2. EMPERORS, DOUKAS. 44

      A. ORIGINS, Anti-Emperor 913. 44

      B. EMPERORS 1059-1068, 1071-1078. 52

      KONSTANTINOS X 1059-1067, MIKHAEL VII 1071-1078. 52

      Chapter 3. EMPEROR, Diogenes 1068-1071. 57

      ROMANOS IV 1068-1072. 58

      Chapter 4. EMPEROR, Botaneiates 1078-1081. 61

      NIKEPHOROS III 1078-1081. 61

      Chapter 5. EMPERORS, Angelos 63

      A. ORIGINS.. 63

      B. EMPERORS 1185-1195. 66

      ISAAKIOS II 1185-1195 & 1203-1204, ALEXIOS III 1195-1203, ALEXIOS IV 1203-1204. 66

      Chapter 6. EMPEROR, Murzuphlos 1204. 75

      ALEXIOS V 1204. 75

      Chapter 7. FAMILIES of ANTI-EMPERORS. 76

      A. BRYENNIOS, 1078. 76

      B. MELISSENOS, 1078. 79

      C. BRANAS, 1186. 81

      INTRODUCTION

      The Komnenos family of emperors succeeded in 1057 after Isaakios Komnenos defeated the imperial army of Emperor Mikhael VI Stratiotikos, the unpopular successor appointed by Empress Theodora. Years of corruption and outside aggression had depleted the empire of economic resources and territory. The recovery process was initiated during Emperor Isaakios's brief reign. However, during the interlude between his abdication in 1059 and the accession of Emperor Alexios I in 1081, the Doukas, Diogenes and Botaneiates families provided emperors. These were unsuccessful times for the empire, which was attacked by the Normans of Apulia in the west and the Seljuk Turks in the east, and in addition suffered incompetent internal government. Emperor Alexios resumed the process of reconstruction. He carried out a major reorganisation of the administration of the empire, aimed at lightening the bureaucracy, and introduced a range of new titles which he distributed to the numerous potential challengers from his own and other ex-imperial families: in descending order of precedence, sébastos, protosébastos, panhypersébastos, sébastohypertatos, pansébastohypertatos, and protopansébastohypertatos. The grand admiral of the fleet became megas dux, and the two domestikoi of the west and the east received the title megas domestikos. He also created the office of logothetis ton sekreton, in charge of all civil administration of the empire. The themes (regional provinces) were reduced in size and importance. The governors of the themes were henceforth all called dux, and their deputies katepan. The title strategos disappeared. Aiming to humiliate the senatorial class, Alexios also removed the need for acclamation by the senate after the election of the emperor[1].

      The successors of Emperor Manuel Komnenos were unable to maintain their grip on power. Emperor Manuel's young son Alexios fell under the influence of his mother, a Latin princess from Antioch. Emperor Andronikos I, the last Komnenos emperor, is remembered for his cruel excesses in attempting to suppress opposition and in 1185 he was overthrown by Isaakios Angelos. Unfortunately for the future of the empire, the Angelos rulers proved to be corrupt and profligate. The Fourth Crusade in the early years of the 13th century was used by the western allies as a pretext to conquer Byzantium. In March 1204, the crusaders and the Venetians agreed to partition the empire: one quarter of its territory would be allocated to the newly created Latin empire of Constantinople, while the remainder would be divided equally between the leaders of the crusade and Venice. Venice renounced direct sovereignty over its share, which included Epirus, Acarnania, Etolia and Peloponnesos, but took direct possession of Durazzo and Ragusa on the Adriatic coast, the ports of Koron and Modon in Peloponnesos, and Adrianople. The crusaders took control of Constantinople 13 April 1204, massacring a large part of the population.

      The Byzantine primary sources so far consulted in the preparation of the present document, which covers the period 1057 to 1204, are the Chronographia of Mikhael Psellos[2], the History of Ioannes Kinnamos[3], the History of Nikephoros Briennios[4], the History of Niketas Choniates[5], the Alexeiad of Anna Comnena[6], the History of Ephræmius[7], the History of Ioannes Zonaras[8], and the Annales of Georgios Akropolitos[9]. The extracts are quoted from the Latin translations, in the case of sources in the nineteenth century Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ series, rather than the original Greek (unless a conflict is obvious), because it is assumed that more users of Medieval Lands will be familiar with Latin than Greek (also because the compiler has only restricted knowledge of the Greek language). The on-line Prosopography of the Byzantine World database (2006.02) produced by King's College, London[10] has also been consulted, especially for Skylitzes and Skylitzes Continuatus (the original texts of which have not been seen) and seals. References in western primary sources to the Byzantine emperors and their families have also been incorporated. General historical information has been extracted and incorporated from secondary sources. As will be seen, there remain many relationships which have not yet been confirmed, particularly among the later generations of the younger branches of the Komnenos family. These have been reproduced in this document from the relevant tables in Europäische Stammtafeln[11], but the suspicion remains that some of the relationships were originally based on speculation, although final confirmation of this will have to await the identification and checking of more sources.

      This document has been reviewed in detail by Morris Bierbrier, who has made additions and corrections where indicated ("MB" in the footnotes), and has also supplied a copy of the list of obituaries of Empress Eirene Doukas's family[12]. I am very grateful for his helpful collaboration.
      Repository:
        Name: Foundation for Medieval Genealogy
        Vowchurch, HEREFORD HR2 0RB England
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