Bolinaga, Borinaga, Boliaga and other Basque Names

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  • ID: I140309
  • Name: Andronikos Komnenos
  • Given Name: Andronikos
  • Surname: Komnenos
  • Prefix: Sébastokrator 1
  • Sex: M
  • Birth: Abt 1108 in Balabista, Thema Makedonia, Basileía Rhomaiôn
  • Death: Autumn 1142
  • Ancestral File #: B25K-41 2
  • _UID: A542C14356964421875756AD6173BC40ED01
  • Change Date: 26 Dec 2008 at 09:10



    Father: Ioannes "Kaloïoannes" Komnenos b: 13 Sep 1087 in Konstantinoupolis, Thema Thráki, Prefecture of Illyricum, Basileía Rhomaiôn
    Mother: Piroska (Eirene) Árpád b: 1077-1090 in Esztergom, Komarom, Hungary

    Marriage 1 Eirene Aineiadissa b: Abt 1109 in Konstantinoupolis, Thema Thráki, Prefecture of Illyricum, Basileía Rhomaiôn
    • Married: Abt 1124 in Konstantinoupolis, Thema Thráki, Prefecture of Illyricum, Basileía Rhomaiôn
    • Change Date: 19 Oct 2008
    Children
    1. Has Children Maria Komnene b: Abt 1126 in Konstantinoupolis, Thema Thráki, Prefecture of Illyricum, Basileía Rhomaiôn
    2. Has Children Alexios Komnenos b: 1136 in Konstantinoupolis, Thema Thráki, Prefecture of Illyricum, Basileía Rhomaiôn
    3. Has Children Theodora Komnene b: Abt 1133 in Konstantinoupolis, Thema Thráki, Prefecture of Illyricum, Basileía Rhomaiôn
    4. Has No Children Andronikos Komnenos b: Abt 1138 in Konstantinoupolis, Thema Thráki, Prefecture of Illyricum, Basileía Rhomaiôn
    5. Has Children Ioannis Dukas Komnenos b: Abt 1128 in Konstantinoupolis, Thema Thráki, Prefecture of Illyricum, Basileía Rhomaiôn
    6. Has Children Eudokia Komnene Gabraina b: Abt 1130 in Konstantinoupolis, Thema Thráki, Prefecture of Illyricum, Basileía Rhomaiôn

    Sources:
    1. Media: Webdatabase
      Abbrev: Foundation for Medieval Genealogy - Byzantium 1057-1204
      Title: Foundation for Medieval Genealogy - Byzantium 1057-1204
      Author: Charles Cawley
      Publication: The Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG) is an official not-for-profit charity registered in England and Wales (Charity Commission No. 1090387). Our main objectives are: to promote rigorous scholarship in the field of medieval genealogical, prosopographical, and related research; to collect, catalogue, translate and analyse relevant primary and secondary sources; to undertake research projects, or to support such projects by financial or other means; and to disseminate information resulting from our activities by electronic or conventional means. The initial projects of the Foundation are shown below (click the text to show further info). We hope to add many further such projects as the Foundation grows, and are always open to your suggestions.
      Text: Notes from web page
      «i»Dictionnaire Historique et Généalogique des Grandes Familles de Grèce, d'Albanie et de Constantinople«/i» (2e edition Paris), p. 49.

      [1] Sturdza, p. 50.

      [2] Mikhael Psellos, Chronographia: Sewter, E. R. A. (trans.) (1966) Fourteen Byzantine Rulers, the Chronographia of Mikhael Psellus (Penguin Books).

      [3] Meineke, A. (ed.) (1836) Ioannes Cinnamus, Nicephorus Bryennius, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn).

      [4] Meineke, A. (ed.) (1836) Ioannes Cinnamus, Nicephorus Bryennius, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn).

      [5] Meineke, A. (ed.) (1835) Nicetæ Choniatæ Historia, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn).

      [6] Sewter, E. R. A. (trans.) (1969) Anna Comnena The Alexiad (Penguin Books).

      [7] Niebuhr, B. G. (ed.) (1840) Ephræmii Monachi Imperatorum et Patriarcharum, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn).

      [8] Büttner-Wobst, T. (ed.) (1897) Ioannes Zonaras, Tome III, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn).

      [9] Bekkerus, I. (ed.) (1836) Constantinus Manasses, Ioel, Georgius Acropolita, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn).

      [10] Prosopography of the Byzantine World ("PBW"), Prosopographical Reading of Byzantine Sources 1025-1102, second edition (2006.02), consulted at <http://www.pbw.kcl.ac.uk/content/index.html> (Sep 2007).

      [11] ES II 174-179.

      [12] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [13] "Nikephoros 105" in PBW (2006.2), citing Skylitzes 371.56, 372.86-73.

      [14] Sturdza, p. 274.

      [15] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [16] "Nikephoros 105" in PBW (2006.2), citing Skylitzes 371.54-56.

      [17] Runciman (1978), Vol 1, p. 55.

      [18] Alexeiad, Book 11, p. 335.

      [19] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 1, p. 17.

      [20] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 1, p. 17.

      [21] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 1, p. 17.

      [22] Alexeiad, Book 11, p. 335.

      [23] Runciman (1978), Vol 1, p. 54.

      [24] "Aikaterine 101" in PBW (2006.2), citing Skylitzes 492.51.

      [25] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 2, p. 19.

      [26] Sturdza, p. 271.

      [27] Psellos, p. 324.

      [28] Mikhael Glykas IV, p. 604.

      [29] Mikhael Glykas IV, p. 603.

      [30] Mikhael Glykas IV, p. 604.

      [31] Psellos, p. 324.

      [32] Alexeiad, Book 1, p. 37.

      [33] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 1, p. 17.

      [34] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 122, and Book 2, p. 73.

      [35] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 1, p. 17.

      [36] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 122, and Book 2, p. 73.

      [37] Sturdza, p. 271.

      [38] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [39] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 2, p. 19.

      [40] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 83.

      [41] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [42] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 2, p. 19.

      [43] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 73.

      [44] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 11, p. 32.

      [45] Alexeiad, Book 1, p. 31.

      [46] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [47] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [48] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 83.

      [49] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 2, p. 19.

      [50] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 6, p. 24.

      [51] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 103.

      [52] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 112.

      [53] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [54] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 2, p. 19.

      [55] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 73.

      [56] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, p. 66.

      [57] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber II, 28, p. 96.

      [58] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 111.

      [59] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [60] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 79.

      [61] "Eirene 65" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 2932.

      [62] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [63] Theodore Prodromos, cited in Polemis, D. I. (1968) The Doukai: A Contribution to Byzantine Prosopography (London, Athlone Press), cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [64] Sturdza, p. 274.

      [65] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [66] Polemis (1968), cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [67] Sturdza, p. 274.

      [68] Alexeiad, Book 10, p. 314.

      [69] Alexeiad, Book 8, p. 264.

      [70] Schreiner, P. "Eine unbekannte Beschreibung der Pammakaristos-kirche (Fethiye Camii) und weitere Texte zure Topographie Konstantinopels," Dumbarton Oaks Papers 25 (1971), pp. 217-48, cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [71] Alexeiad, Book 12, pp. 379 and 388.

      [72] ES II 174.

      [73] Magdalino (2002), cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [74] Magdalino (2002), cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [75] Alexeiad, Book 8, p. 265.

      [76] Sturdza, p. 247.

      [77] "Konstantinos 31" in PBW (2006.2), citing Theophylact of Ohrid 563.2.

      [78] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [79] Magdalino (2002), cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [80] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [81] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 2, p. 19.

      [82] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 6, p. 24.

      [83] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 111.

      [84] 17 Nov 1104 according to Sturdza, p. 274.

      [85] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 2, p. 19.

      [86] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 6, p. 24.

      [87] Alexeiad, Book 10, p. 296.

      [88] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 2, p. 19.

      [89] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 73.

      [90] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 2, p. 19.

      [91] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 112.

      [92] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [93] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 108.

      [94] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [95] Magdalino (2002) and Cheynet, both cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [96] Before 1086 in Sturdza p 274.

      [97] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 2, p. 19.

      [98] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 112.

      [99] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [100] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [101] Schreiner, P. "Eine unbekannte Beschreibung der Pammakaristos-kirche (Fethiye Camii) und weitere Texte zure Topographie Konstantinopels," Dumbarton Oaks Papers 25 (1971), pp. 217-48, cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [102] Polemis (1968), cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [103] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [104] Magdalino, P. (2002) The Empire of Manuel I Komnenos, 1143-1180 (Cambridge), K. Varzos (1984) He Genealogia ton Komnenon, 2 vols. (Thessaloniki, Kentron Byzantinon erevnon), and Cheynet, J.-C. and Vannier, J.-F. (1986) Études prosopographiques (Paris), cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [105] Schreiner, P. "Eine unbekannte Beschreibung der Pammakaristos-kirche (Fethiye Camii) und weitere Texte zure Topographie Konstantinopels," Dumbarton Oaks Papers 25 (1971), pp. 217-48, cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [106] Schreiner, P. "Eine unbekannte Beschreibung der Pammakaristos-kirche (Fethiye Camii) und weitere Texte zure Topographie Konstantinopels," Dumbarton Oaks Papers 25 (1971), pp. 217-48, cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [107] Sturdza, p. 274.

      [108] Morris Bierbrier, in a private email to the author dated 6 Feb 2006.

      [109] Baumgarten (1927), p. 11, citing "Œuvres de Cyrille Evêque de Tourov" p. IX.

      [110] Ortliebi Zwifaltensis Chronicon, MGH SS X, p. 90, and footnote 7.

      [111] Sturdza, p. 274.

      [112] Only three examples are noted in PBW (2006.2).

      [113] ES II 175.

      [114] Baumgarten (1927), p. 25, citing Karamzine II note 405, and p. 27.

      [115] Sturdza, p. 275.

      [116] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 2, p. 19.

      [117] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 73.

      [118] Alexeiad, Book 1, p. 31.

      [119] Fine (1991), p. 282.

      [120] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, pp. 76-7.

      [121] Alexeiad, Book 8, pp. 266-8.

      [122] Alexeiad, Book IX, p. 281.

      [123] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, pp. 102-3.

      [124] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, p. 149-52.

      [125] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [126] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber III, 6, p. 107.

      [127] Alexeiad, Book 2, pp. 91-2.

      [128] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 90.

      [129] Alexeiad, Book 1, p. 53.

      [130] Alexeiad, Book 3, pp. 105 and 110.

      [131] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber III, 6, p. 106.

      [132] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 109.

      [133] Niketas Choniates, Iohannes Komnenos, 2, p. 8.

      [134] Zonaras XVIII, 22, p. 738.

      [135] Alexeiad, Preface, p. 17.

      [136] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 208-9.

      [137] Alexeiad, Preface, p. 19.

      [138] Alexeiad, Book 6, p. 197.

      [139] Zonaras XVIII, 22, p. 739.

      [140] Alexeiad, Book 10, p. 301.

      [141] WT II.XII, p. 89.

      [142] Niketas Choniates, Iohannes Komnenos, 5, p. 23.

      [143] PC 1104, p. 202.

      [144] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber III, 17, p. 127.

      [145] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [146] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [147] Alexeiad, Book 15, p. 511.

      [148] Zonaras XVIII, 22, p. 739.

      [149] Zonaras XVIII, 22, p. 739.

      [150] Niketas Choniates, Liber II Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 7, p. 126.

      [151] Niketas Choniates, Iohannes Komnenos, 5, p. 23.

      [152] PC 1104, p. 202.

      [153] Niketas Choniates, Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, Liber 1, 8, p. 72.

      [154] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 219.

      [155] Niketas Choniates, Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, Liber 1, 8, p. 72.

      [156] Sturdza, p. 274.

      [157] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [158] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [159] Niketas Choniates, Iohannes Komnenos, 5, 11 and 12, pp. 23, 52 and 56.

      [160] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [161] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [162] WT II.XII, p. 89.

      [163] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 208.

      [164] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 210.

      [165] Sturdza, p. 271.

      [166] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 212.

      [167] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 223-4.

      [168] Zonaras XVIII, 24, p. 748.

      [169] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber I, 4, p. 9.

      [170] Macartney, Chapter 3.

      [171] Alexeiad, Book 12, p. 379.

      [172] Niketas Choniates, Liber III Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 2, p. 135.

      [173] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 222.

      [174] ES II 177.

      [175] Sturdza, p. 276.

      [176] Baumgarten (1927), p. 25, citing Byzantina Chronika IX, pp. 418-46, and XI, pp. 73-98.

      [177] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 360.

      [178] Georgian Chronicle 18, p. 110.

      [179] Niketas Choniates, Liber III Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 2, pp. 135-6.

      [180] "Maria 20117" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3040.

      [181] Sturdza, p. 276.

      [182] Alexeiad, Book 12, p. 379.

      [183] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber II, 3, p. 36.

      [184] Niketas Choniates, Liber III Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 2, p. 135.

      [185] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 222.

      [186] Niketas Choniates, Liber III Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 2, p. 135.

      [187] Niketas Choniates, Liber VII de Rebus Gesti Manuelis Comneni, 1, p. 68.

      [188] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber III, 9, p. 109.

      [189] Niketas Choniates, Liber III Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 2, p. 135.

      [190] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 347-8.

      [191] Rüdt-Collenberg (1975), p. 125, footnote 30.

      [192] ES II 177.

      [193] WT XX.I, p. 942.

      [194] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 13, p. 237.


      [195] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 370 and 377.

      [196] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CC.LXXXVII, p. 61.

      [197] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1233, MGH SS XXIII, p. 933.

      [198] Mas de Latrie, Histoire de Chypre Vol. 3, p. 608.

      [199] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Andronici Comneni, Liber 1, 8, p. 384.

      [200] Niketas Choniates, Liber III Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 2, p. 135.

      [201] Annales Mellicenses 1149, MGH SS IX, p. 504.

      [202] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 270.

      [203] Fuhrmann, p. 150.

      [204] Annales Mellicenses 1185, MGH SS IX, p. 505.

      [205] Continuatio Zwetlensis Altera 1184, MGH SS IX, p. 542.

      [206] Necrologium Seccoviense, Salzburg Necrologies (Regio Styriaca), p. 403.

      [207] Monumenta Necrologica Claustroneoburgensis, Passau Necrologies (II), p. 3.

      [208] Niketas Choniates, Liber III Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 2, p. 135.

      [209] ES II 177.

      [210] Rüdt-Collenberg (1963), p. 50, citing presumably Tschamitchan, M. History of Armenia I/II (Calcutta, 1827).

      [211] Niketas Choniates, Liber IV Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 1, p. 173.

      [212] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 8, p. 226.

      [213] Niketas Choniates, Liber III Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 2, p. 135.

      [214] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 348.

      [215] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 1, p. 293.

      [216] Niketas Choniates, Liber II Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 2, p. 103.

      [217] Niketas Choniates, Liber III Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 2, p. 135.

      [218] Niketas Choniates, Liber II Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 2, p. 106.

      [219] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Andronici Comneni, Liber 1, 4, p. 376.

      [220] ES II 177.

      [221] Morris Bierbrier, in a private email to the author dated 15 Mar 2007.

      [222] Sturdza, p. 277.

      [223] Rüdt-Collenberg (1968), p. 127.

      [224] Niketas Choniates Chronikon, ed. Bekker (Bonn, 1835), 14.

      [225] Rüdt-Collenberg (1968), p. 128, footnote 1.

      [226] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Andronici Comneni, Liber 1, 4, p. 376.

      [227] Rüdt-Collenberg (1968), p. 130, citing Nephytos 'Presbyter De Calamitatibus Cypri', Patrologia Græca, 135 (Paris, 1864), 4.

      [228] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Andronici Comneni, Liber 1, 4, p. 377.

      [229] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber VI, 6, p. 268.

      [230] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber IV, 1, p. 135.

      [231] Niketas Choniates, Liber IV Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 1, p. 165.

      [232] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 1, p. 203.

      [233] WT XVIII.XXII, p. 857.

      [234] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 13, p. 237.

      [235] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 349-50.

      [236] WT XX.II, p. 943.

      [237] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 2, p. 295.

      [238] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 378-9.

      [239] ES II 175.

      [240] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [241] Sturdza, p. 277.

      [242] Kerbl, R. (1979) Byzantinische Prinzessinnen in Ungarn zwischen 1050-1200 und ihr Einfluß auf das Arpadenkönigreich (VWGÖ, Vienna), p. 149.

      [243] Ioannes Kinnamos I, 9, p. 21.

      [244] "Andronikos 17010" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3038.

      [245] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber III, 10, p. 114.

      [246] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 351.

      [247] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIIII, p. 93.

      [248] Sturdza, p. 276.

      [249] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 429.

      [250] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CC.LXXXXVII, p. 77.

      [251] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XLVI, p. 110.

      [252] ES II 177. She was born in 1164, according to Rüdt-Collenberg (1968), p. 165, footnote 3.

      [253] Sturdza, p. 276.

      [254] Barzos, K. [Genealogy of the Komnenoi], vol. II, p. 14, n. 19 . [J.-C. Chuat]

      [255] D'Aigrefeuille Histoire de Montpellier, pp. 67-8.

      [256] Annali Pisani. Continuazione volgara, 1179, pp. 67-8, available at <http://dante.di.unipi.it/ricerca/html/anp.html> (25 Nov 2006).

      [257] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 4, p. 301.

      [258] Grume, V. Les Regestes du Patriarcat de Constantinople (Paris, 1932), Reg. 1162, cited in Rüdt-Collenberg (1968), Table I.

      [259] Magdalino (2002), and Cheynet, both cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [260] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Andronici Comneni, Liber 1, 6, p. 386.

      [261] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 3, 6, p. 697.

      [262] Sturdza, p. 271.

      [263] Ioannes Kinnamos I, 9, p. 21.

      [264] Niketas Choniates, Liber VII de Rebus Gesti Manuelis Comneni, 1, p. 66.

      [265] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 351.

      [266] Fine (1991), pp. 242-43.

      [267] Runciman (1978), pp. 412-4.

      [268] Sturdza, p. 271.

      [269] Niketas Choniates, Liber VII Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 7, p. 286.

      [270] Otto of Freising, Gesta, I xxv, p. 55.

      [271] Although this obligation was subsequently confirmed by the Treaty of Thessaloniki in end 1148, see Houben, p. 90.

      [272] Houben, p.. 89.

      [273] WT XXII.IV, p. 1067.

      [274] Monumenta Necrologica Claustroneoburgensis, Passau Necrologies (II), p. 3.

      [275] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 4, p. 208.

      [276] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 4, p. 208.

      [277] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 359.

      [278] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIIII, p. 93, and Le Vaticanus Latinus 7806, El parentado de Beimonte principe 9, p. 172.

      [279] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 4, p. 209.

      [280] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 358.

      [281] Sturdza, p. 271.

      [282] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 4, p. 301.

      [283] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [284] Niketas Choniates, Liber IV Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 1, p. 167.

      [285] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 5, p. 215.

      [286] Niketas Choniates, Liber V Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 8, p. 221.

      [287] Romoaldi Annales, MGH SS XIX, pp. 436 and 439.

      [288] Parker, J. 'The Attempted Byzantine Alliance with the Sicilian Norman Kingdom (1166-7)', Greierson, P. and Perkins, J. W. (eds.) (1956) Studies in Italian Medieval History, presented to Miss E. M. Jamison, Papers of the British School at Rome Volume XXIV (New Series, Volume XI) (British School at Rome, London), pp. 86-93, and Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 403.

      [289] Niketas Choniates, Liber V Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 8, p. 222.

      [290] WT XXII.IV, p. 1067.

      [291] Robert de Torigny, Vol. II, p. 87.

      [292] Fine (1991), pp. 239-40.

      [293] Fine (1991), p. 243.

      [294] WT XXII.IV, p. 1066.

      [295] Sicardi Episcopi Cremonensis Cronica, MGH SS XXXI, p. 173.

      [296] Fine (1994), p. 63.

      [297] Ioannes Kinnamos V, 1, p. 202.

      [298] WT XXII.IV, p. 1066.

      [299] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 1, p. 291.

      [300] Benedict of Peterborough I 1179, p. 230.

      [301] WT XXII.IV, p. 1066.

      [302] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1164, MGH SS XXIII, p. 848.

      [303] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Andronici Comneni, Liber 1, 1, p. 357.

      [304] Benedict of Peterborough I 1183, p. 234.

      [305] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 4, p. 301.

      [306] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 417.

      [307] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [308] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 15, p. 337.

      [309] ES II 175.

      [310] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 332.

      [311] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 396.

      [312] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 364-5.

      [313] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 377-9.

      [314] Fine (1994), p. 6.

      [315] ES II 175.

      [316] Sturdza, p. 275.

      [317] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1164, MGH SS XXIII, p. 848.

      [318] WT XXII.IV, p. 1066.

      [319] Benedict of Peterborough I 1179, p. 230.

      [320] Benedict of Peterborough I 1183, p. 234.

      [321] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Andronici Comneni, Liber 1, 1, p. 357.

      [322] Villehardouin, 18, p. 133.

      [323] Niketas Choniates, Liber III Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 2, p. 135.

      [324] Niketas Choniates, Liber IV Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 1, p. 173.

      [325] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 8, p. 226.

      [326] Niketas Choniates, Liber IV Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 1, pp. 181-2.

      [327] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 2, p. 295.

      [328] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 378-9.

      [329] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 11, p. 323.

      [330] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 17, p. 348.

      [331] ES II 176.

      [332] Sturdza, p. 280.

      [333] Niketas Choniates, Liber de Rebus post captam urbem gestis, 16, p. 842.

      [334] Niketas Choniates, Liber de Rebus post captam urbem gestis, 16, p. 842.

      [335] Sturdza, p. 278.

      [336] Gardner, pp. 86-7.

      [337] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 11, p. 323.



      [338] Niketas Choniates, Liber IV Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 1, p. 185.

      [339] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 412.

      [340] MB in a private email to the author dated 10 Dec 2006.

      [341] Sturdza, p. 274.

      [342] Niketas Choniates, Liber IV Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 1, p. 185.

      [343] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 15, p. 337.

      [344] Niketas Choniates, Liber IV Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 1, p. 185.

      [345] Fine (1994), p. 28.

      [346] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 1, 2, p. 605.

      [347] Ephræmius 6445, p. 263.

      [348] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 3, 2, p. 674.

      [349] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 1, 2 and 6, pp. 620 and 623.

      [350] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 3, 7, p. 709.

      [351] Fine (1994), p. 28-9.

      [352] Fine (1994), pp. 30-1.

      [353] Whose wife was Maria Angelina, paternal aunt of Emperor Alexios III.

      [354] Fine (1994), p. 32.

      [355] Georgii Monachi Vitæ Recentiorum Imperatorum (referred to as Georgius Monachus Continuatus in PBE I CD-Rom), De Leone Basilii filii, 38, p. 867.

      [356] ES II 178.

      [357] Georgii Monachi Vitæ Recentiorum Imperatorum (referred to as Georgius Monachus Continuatus in PBE I CD-Rom), De Leone Basilii filii, 38, p. 867.

      [358] Theophanes Continuatus, VI, Constantini Leonis filii imperium, 2-4, pp. 381-84.

      [359] Theophanes Continuatus, VI, Constantini Leonis filii imperium, 3, p. 383.

      [360] Theophanes Continuatus, VI, Constantini Leonis filii imperium, 4, p. 384.

      [361] Georgii Monachi Vitæ Recentiorum Imperatorum (referred to as Georgius Monachus Continuatus in PBE I CD-Rom), De Leone Basilii filii, 38, p. 867.

      [362] Theophanes Continuatus, VI, Constantini Leonis filii imperium, 3, p. 383.

      [363] Theophanes Continuatus, VI, Constantini Leonis filii imperium, 3, p. 383.

      [364] Theophanes Continuatus, VI, Constantini Leonis filii imperium, 3, p. 383.

      [365] Psellos, p. 326.

      [366] Sturdza, p. 293.

      [367] "Andronikos 20128" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3390.

      [368] Psellos, p. 326.

      [369] Psellos, p. 342.

      [370] Runciman (1978), Vol 1, pp. 66-7.

      [371] Alexeiad, Book 1, p. 59.

      [372] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [373] "Leon 2103" in PBW (2006.2), citing '?p?t?f??? e?? ??????? ?a?s???ssa?', in Kurtz, E. and Drexl, F. (1936) Michaelis Pselli Scripta minora magnam partem adhuc inedita I (Milan), pp. 155-189, 159.

      [374] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [375] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 110.

      [376] Mikhael Glykas IV, pp. 611-2.

      [377] Psellos, pp. 360-1.

      [378] Theodore Prodromos, cited in Polemis (1968), cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [379] Polemis (1968), cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [380] Sturdza, p. 274.

      [381] Theodore Prodromos, cited in Polemis (1968), cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [382] Sturdza, p. 274.

      [383] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [384] "Maria 20115" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 2999.

      [385] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 110.

      [386] Mikhael Glykas IV, pp. 611-2.

      [387] Psellos, p. 365, footnote 1.

      [388] Psellos, p. 362.

      [389] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [390] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber III, 6, p. 106.

      [391] Alexeiad, Book 2, pp. 85 and 87.

      [392] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [393] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 90.

      [394] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [395] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [396] "Konstantinos 130" in PBW (2006.2), citing Theophylact of Ohrid 461.19, 549.20, 571.16.

      [397] Polemis (1968), cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [398] Schreiner, P. "Eine unbekannte Beschreibung der Pammakaristos-kirche (Fethiye Camii) und weitere Texte zure Topographie Konstantinopels," Dumbarton Oaks Papers 25 (1971), pp. 217-48, cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [399] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [400] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [401] Alexeiad, Book 2, pp. 86-7.

      [402] Alexeiad, Book 2, pp. 91-2.

      [403] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 90.

      [404] Alexeiad, Book 1, p. 53.

      [405] Alexeiad, Book 3, pp. 105 and 110.

      [406] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber III, 6, p. 106.

      [407] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 109.

      [408] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [409] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 87.

      [410] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 90.

      [411] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [412] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber III, 6, p. 106.

      [413] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [414] Schreiner, P. "Eine unbekannte Beschreibung der Pammakaristos-kirche (Fethiye Camii) und weitere Texte zure Topographie Konstantinopels," Dumbarton Oaks Papers 25 (1971), pp. 217-48, cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [415] Chronicon Ottonis Frisingensis VII. 21, MGH SS XX, p. 259.

      [416] Sturdza, p. 293.

      [417] Kerbl, p. 78.

      [418] Niketas Choniates, Liber VI Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 1, p. 233.

      [419] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Andronici Comneni, Liber 1, 4, p. 377.

      [420] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber VI, 6, p. 268.

      [421] Sturdza, pp. 208 and 277.

      [422] Morris Bierbrier, in a private email to the author dated 18 Jan 2007.

      [423] ES II 179.

      [424] Chronicon Posoniense, p. 57.

      [425] ES II 154.

      [426] Sturdza, p. 293.

      [427] Psellos, p. 326.

      [428] Runciman (1978), pp. 55-8.

      [429] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, p. 61.

      [430] Psellos, p. 331, footnote 2.

      [431] Psellos, p. 343.

      [432] Psellos, pp. 333-4.

      [433] Zonaras XVII, 14, p. 589.

      [434] Psellos, p. 343.

      [435] Mikhael Attaliota, p. 56.

      [436] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 6, p. 23.

      [437] Psellos, p. 343, footnote 3.

      [438] Psellos, pp. 348-9.

      [439] Psellos, p. 334.

      [440] Mikhael Glykas IV, p. 606.

      [441] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 6, p. 23.

      [442] Psellos, p. 334.

      [443] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, p. 61.

      [444] Psellos, p. 359.

      [445] Runciman (1978), Vol 1, pp. 66-7.

      [446] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, p. 68.

      [447] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), pp. 329-30.

      [448] Zonaras XVIII, 17, p. 714.

      [449] Alexeiad, Book 1, p. 37.

      [450] Psellos, p. 373.

      [451] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [452] Romoaldi Annales 1076, MGH SS XIX, p. 407.

      [453] Alexeiad, Book 1, pp. 53 and 57-8.

      [454] Amatus VII.26, p. 178.

      [455] Houts, p. 252 footnote 83.

      [456] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. IV, Book VII, p. 15.

      [457] Zonaras XVIII, 22, p. 738.

      [458] Mikhael Glykas IV, p. 607.

      [459] Psellos, p. 340.

      [460] Mikhael Glykas IV, p. 607.

      [461] Psellos, p. 340.

      [462] Psellos, p. 340.

      [463] Mikhael Glykas IV, p. 606.

      [464] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 6, p. 23.


      [465] Psellos, p. 340.

      [466] Psellos, p. 374.

      [467] Mikhael Glykas IV, p. 606.

      [468] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 6, p. 23.

      [469] Psellos, p. 340.

      [470] Psellos, pp. 345 and 346.

      [471] Psellos, p. 375, footnote 1.

      [472] Alexeiad, Book 4, p. 148.

      [473] Mikhael Glykas IV, p. 607.

      [474] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 108.

      [475] Magdalino (2002) and Cheynet, both cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [476] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [477] "Theodotos 20108" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3677.

      [478] "Adralestos 20101" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seals 287 and 4370.

      [479] "Baasakios 20102" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 4371.

      [480] "Pankratios 20101" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seals 773 and 4073.

      [481] Psellos, p. 350.

      [482] Zonaras XVIII, 10, p. 684.

      [483] Mikhael Glykas IV, p. 607.

      [484] Psellos, p. 350.

      [485] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, p. 61.

      [486] Psellos, pp. 348-9.

      [487] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 6, p. 24.

      [488] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber II, 29, p. 99.

      [489] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 6, p. 24.

      [490] Alexeiad, Book 10, p. 296.

      [491] ES III 181.

      [492] Amatus I.11, p. 48.

      [493] Alexeiad, Book 4, p. 144, and Book 9, p. 280.

      [494] Alexeiad, Book 9, p. 281.

      [495] Alexeiad, Book 7, p. 224.

      [496] Alexeiad, Book 4, p. 144, and Book 9, p. 280.

      [497] Alexeiad, Book 9, p. 281.

      [498] Alexeiad, Book 9, pp. 281-7.

      [499] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [500] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [501] Kerbl, pp. 15-16.

      [502] Laurent, V. Chronologie, p. 246 (28), cited in Kerbl, p. 18.

      [503] Kerbl, p. 19.

      [504] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, pp. 68-9.

      [505] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 75.

      [506] "Bebdene 101" in PBW (2006.2), citing Skylitzes Continuatus 181.22-23.

      [507] Alexeiad, Book 1, p. 37.

      [508] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 83.

      [509] "Theodoulos 102" in PBW (2006.2), citing Skylitzes Continuatus 185.24.

      [510] "Leon 20113" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 241.

      [511] "Eustratios 20120" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seals 3831 and 3832.

      [512] "Manuel 20136" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 4445.

      [513] Sturdza, p. 207.

      [514] ES II 179.

      [515] ES II 179.

      [516] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber III, 12, p. 120.

      [517] Niketas Choniates, Liber II Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 7, p. 126.

      [518] Niketas Choniates, Liber VI Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 1, p. 233.

      [519] Sturdza, p. 208.

      [520] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [521] ES II 179.

      [522] Niketas Choniates, Liber VI Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 1, p. 233.

      [523] Fine (1994), pp. 27 and 32.

      [524] ES II 179.

      [525] Ioannes Kinnamos IV, 7, pp. 47 and 52.

      [526] Ioannes Kinnamos IV, 6, p. 148, IV, 11, p. 162 and V, 13, p. 238.

      [527] ES II 179.

      [528] ES II 179.

      [529] Georgius Akropolites 51, p. 107.

      [530] Niketas Choniates, Liber VI Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 1, p. 233.

      [531] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Andronici Comneni, Liber 1, 2, p. 365.

      [532] Sturdza, p. 208.

      [533] ES II 179.

      [534] Gardner, p. 115.

      [535] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 9, p. 319.

      [536] Fine (1994), pp. 27-8.

      [537] Fine (1994), p. 60.

      [538] Michell, R. and Forbes, N (trans.) (1914) The Chronicle of Novgorod 1016-1471 (London), 1204, pp. 43-8.

      [539] Fine (1994), pp. 63-4.

      [540] Fine (1994), p. 66.

      [541] Gardner, p. 64.

      [542] Gardner, p. 83.

      [543] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 1, 1, p. 601.

      [544] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 2, 2, p. 642.

      [545] Gardner, p. 90.

      [546] Ephræmius 7565, p. 306.

      [547] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 1, 2, p. 605.

      [548] Ephræmius 6440, p. 263.

      [549] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 3, 2, p. 674.

      [550] Georgius Akropolites 5, p. 10.

      [551] Birth date range estimated from the birth of her daughter by her first marriage [before 1196].

      [552] Gardner, p. 115.

      [553] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 1, 2, p. 605.

      [554] Ephræmius 6445, p. 263.

      [555] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 3, 2, p. 674.

      [556] Georgius Akropolites 5, p. 10.

      [557] Fine (1994), p. 28.

      [558] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 3, 7, p. 700.

      [559] Fine (1994), p. 26.

      [560] Fine (1994), p. 46.

      [561] Niketas Choniates, Alexius Ducas Murzuflus, 3, p. 755.

      [562] Georgius Akropolites 5, p. 10.

      [563] Villehardouin, 14, p. 99.

      [564] Ephræmius 7295, p. 296.

      [565] Georgius Akropolites 8, p. 15.

      [566] Fine (1994), pp. 64-5.

      [567] Fine (1994), p. 64.

      [568] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Andronici Comneni, Liber 1, 3, p. 374.

      [569] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 9, p. 319.

      [570] Fine (1994), p. 9.

      [571] Fine (1994), p. 14.

      [572] Fine (1994), p. 15.

      [573] Fine (1994), p. 24-25.

      [574] Fine (1994), pp. 25-26.

      [575] Fine (1994), p. 27.

      [576] Fine (1994), p. 11.

      [577] Hiestand, R. Jarhbuch für österreichischen Byzantinistik 47 (1997), pp. 199-208, citing Böhmer Fontes rerum Germanicarum IV (1868), pp. 323-4.

      [578] "Konstantinos 216" in PBW (2006.2), citing Branouse, E. and Nystazopoulou-Pelekidou, M. (1980) ???a?t??? ????afa t?? µ???? ??tµ?? 1. ??t???at?????, 2. ??µ?s??? ?e?t?????? (Athens) Vol. 2, p. 131.14.

      [579] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1167, MGH SS XXIII, pp. 849-50.

      [580] Fine (1994), p. 10.

      [581] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Isaacii Angeli, Liber 1, 4, p. 481.

      [582] Fine (1994), p. 11.

      [583] Villehardouin, 11, p. 82, and 12, p. 92.

      [584] Fine (1994), p. 63.

      [585] Cronica Fratris Salimbene de Adam, Ordinis Minorem 1204, MGH SS XXXII, p. 25.

      [586] Villehardouin, 13, p. 96.

      [587] Georgius Akropolites 8, p. 15.

      [588] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Isaacii Angeli, Liber 3, 1, p. 549.

      [589] Hiestand, R. Jarhbuch für österreichischen Byzantinistik 47 (1997), pp. 199-208, citing Böhmer Fontes rerum Germanicarum IV (1868), pp. 323-4.

      [590] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Isaacii Angeli, Liber 3, 1, p. 549.

      [591] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Annales 1191, MGH SS XIX, p. 325.

      [592] Annales Casenses 1193, MGH SS XIX, p. 317.

      [593] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 2, 1, p. 635.

      [594] WTC XXIII.XVI, p. 24, and XXIV.IX, p. 118.

      [595] Continuatio Admuntensis 1194, MGH SS IX, p. 587.

      [596] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 112.

      [597] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 115.

      [598] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Isaacii Angeli, Liber 3, 1, p. 549.

      [599] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 112.

      [600] Sturdza, p. 476.

      [601] Sturdza, p. 477.

      [602] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 117-18.

      [603] Niketas Choniates, pp. 718-26, cited in Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 119.

      [604] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 119.

      [605] Gardner, p. 47.

      [606] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 120-1.

      [607] Sturdza, p. 207.

      [608] Fennell, p. 24.

      [609] Hiestand, R. Jarhbuch für österreichischen Byzantinistik 47 (1997), pp. 199-208, citing Böhmer Fontes rerum Germanicarum IV (1868), pp. 323-4.

      [610] Gardner, p. 83.

      [611] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber III, 9, p. 109.

      [612] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Isaacii Angeli, Liber 1, 6, p. 489.

      [613] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Isaacii Angeli, Liber 1, 7, p. 497.

      [614] Cronica Fratris Salimbene de Adam, Ordinis Minorem 1185, MGH SS XXXII, p. 4.

      [615] ES II 179.

      [616] Continuatio Admuntensis 1203, MGH SS IX, p. 590.

      [617] Annales Mellicenses 1203, MGH SS IX, p. 506.

      [618] Monumenta Necrologica S Rudperti Salisburgensis, Salzburg Necrologies, p. 91.

      [619] Necrologium Monasterii Campi Liliorum, Passau Necrologies (II), p. 368.

      [620] Monumenta Necrologica Claustroneoburgensis, Passau Necrologies (II), p. 3.

      [621] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 120.

      [622] Gardner, p. 48.

      [623] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 122.

      [624] Gardner, p. 63, and Sturdza, p. 207.

      [625] Niketas Choniates, p. 749.

      [626] Niketas Choniates, Alexius Ducas Murzuflus, 3, p. 755.

      [627] Georgius Akropolites 5, p. 10.

      [628] Villehardouin, 14, p. 99.

      [629] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber III, 67, p. 109.

      [630] Alexeiad, Book 1, pp. 37-8.

      [631] Alexeiad, Book 1, pp. 39-40.

      [632] Alexeiad, Book 1, pp. 40-1.

      [633] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber III, 67, p. 109.

      [634] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber III, 67, p. 109.

      [635] Alexeiad, Preface, p. 19.

      [636] Niketas Choniates, Liber II Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 7, p. 125.

      [637] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber IV, 12, p. 165.

      [638] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 4, p. 210.

      [639] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [640] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Isaacii Angeli, Liber 3, 2, p. 556.

      [641] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [642] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [643] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71.

      [644] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 4, p. 210.

      [645] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 4, p. 210.

      [646] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.

      [647] Theophanes AM 6258.

      [648] Theophanes AM 6263.

      [649] Genesius, Liber 1, De Leone Amalekita, p. 11.

      [650] Ostrogorsky, p. 232.

      [651] 17 Nov 1104 according to Sturdza, p. 274.

      [652] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 11, p. 32.

      [653] Alexeiad, Book 2, pp. 92-4.

      [654] Alexeiad, Book 3, IV.

      [655] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 6, p. 24.

      [656] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 111.

      [657] Georgius Akropolites 49, p. 98.

      [658] Sturdza, p. 344.

      [659] Sturdza, p. 344.

      [660] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber II, 3, p. 33.

      [661] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber II, 13, p. 70.

      [662] Fine (1994), p. 9.

      [663] Fine (1994), p. 14.

      [664] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Isaacii Angeli, Liber 1, 7, p. 502.

      [665] Gardner, pp. 72-3.

      [666] Fine (1994), p. 85.

      [667] Villehardouin, 18, p. 133.

      [668] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1205 and 1235, MGH SS XXIII, pp. 885 and 939.

      [669] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber II, 5, p. 97
      Note:
      BYZANTIUM 1057-1204

      RETURN TO CONTENTS

      TABLE OF CONTENTS

      INTRODUCTION. 2

      Chapter 1. KOMNENOS. 4

      A. EMPERORS 1057-1059, 1081-1185. 4

      ISAAKIOS I 1057-1059. 4

      ALEXIOS I 1081-1118. 17

      IOANNES II 1118-1143. 22

      MANUEL I 1143-1180, ALEXIOS II 1180-1183. 34

      ANDRONIKOS I 1183-1185. 38

      Chapter 2. EMPERORS, DOUKAS. 44

      A. ORIGINS, Anti-Emperor 913. 44

      B. EMPERORS 1059-1068, 1071-1078. 52

      KONSTANTINOS X 1059-1067, MIKHAEL VII 1071-1078. 52

      Chapter 3. EMPEROR, Diogenes 1068-1071. 57

      ROMANOS IV 1068-1072. 58

      Chapter 4. EMPEROR, Botaneiates 1078-1081. 61

      NIKEPHOROS III 1078-1081. 61

      Chapter 5. EMPERORS, Angelos 63

      A. ORIGINS.. 63

      B. EMPERORS 1185-1195. 66

      ISAAKIOS II 1185-1195 & 1203-1204, ALEXIOS III 1195-1203, ALEXIOS IV 1203-1204. 66

      Chapter 6. EMPEROR, Murzuphlos 1204. 75

      ALEXIOS V 1204. 75

      Chapter 7. FAMILIES of ANTI-EMPERORS. 76

      A. BRYENNIOS, 1078. 76

      B. MELISSENOS, 1078. 79

      C. BRANAS, 1186. 81

      INTRODUCTION

      The Komnenos family of emperors succeeded in 1057 after Isaakios Komnenos defeated the imperial army of Emperor Mikhael VI Stratiotikos, the unpopular successor appointed by Empress Theodora. Years of corruption and outside aggression had depleted the empire of economic resources and territory. The recovery process was initiated during Emperor Isaakios's brief reign. However, during the interlude between his abdication in 1059 and the accession of Emperor Alexios I in 1081, the Doukas, Diogenes and Botaneiates families provided emperors. These were unsuccessful times for the empire, which was attacked by the Normans of Apulia in the west and the Seljuk Turks in the east, and in addition suffered incompetent internal government. Emperor Alexios resumed the process of reconstruction. He carried out a major reorganisation of the administration of the empire, aimed at lightening the bureaucracy, and introduced a range of new titles which he distributed to the numerous potential challengers from his own and other ex-imperial families: in descending order of precedence, sébastos, protosébastos, panhypersébastos, sébastohypertatos, pansébastohypertatos, and protopansébastohypertatos. The grand admiral of the fleet became megas dux, and the two domestikoi of the west and the east received the title megas domestikos. He also created the office of logothetis ton sekreton, in charge of all civil administration of the empire. The themes (regional provinces) were reduced in size and importance. The governors of the themes were henceforth all called dux, and their deputies katepan. The title strategos disappeared. Aiming to humiliate the senatorial class, Alexios also removed the need for acclamation by the senate after the election of the emperor[1].

      The successors of Emperor Manuel Komnenos were unable to maintain their grip on power. Emperor Manuel's young son Alexios fell under the influence of his mother, a Latin princess from Antioch. Emperor Andronikos I, the last Komnenos emperor, is remembered for his cruel excesses in attempting to suppress opposition and in 1185 he was overthrown by Isaakios Angelos. Unfortunately for the future of the empire, the Angelos rulers proved to be corrupt and profligate. The Fourth Crusade in the early years of the 13th century was used by the western allies as a pretext to conquer Byzantium. In March 1204, the crusaders and the Venetians agreed to partition the empire: one quarter of its territory would be allocated to the newly created Latin empire of Constantinople, while the remainder would be divided equally between the leaders of the crusade and Venice. Venice renounced direct sovereignty over its share, which included Epirus, Acarnania, Etolia and Peloponnesos, but took direct possession of Durazzo and Ragusa on the Adriatic coast, the ports of Koron and Modon in Peloponnesos, and Adrianople. The crusaders took control of Constantinople 13 April 1204, massacring a large part of the population.

      The Byzantine primary sources so far consulted in the preparation of the present document, which covers the period 1057 to 1204, are the Chronographia of Mikhael Psellos[2], the History of Ioannes Kinnamos[3], the History of Nikephoros Briennios[4], the History of Niketas Choniates[5], the Alexeiad of Anna Comnena[6], the History of Ephræmius[7], the History of Ioannes Zonaras[8], and the Annales of Georgios Akropolitos[9]. The extracts are quoted from the Latin translations, in the case of sources in the nineteenth century Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ series, rather than the original Greek (unless a conflict is obvious), because it is assumed that more users of Medieval Lands will be familiar with Latin than Greek (also because the compiler has only restricted knowledge of the Greek language). The on-line Prosopography of the Byzantine World database (2006.02) produced by King's College, London[10] has also been consulted, especially for Skylitzes and Skylitzes Continuatus (the original texts of which have not been seen) and seals. References in western primary sources to the Byzantine emperors and their families have also been incorporated. General historical information has been extracted and incorporated from secondary sources. As will be seen, there remain many relationships which have not yet been confirmed, particularly among the later generations of the younger branches of the Komnenos family. These have been reproduced in this document from the relevant tables in Europäische Stammtafeln[11], but the suspicion remains that some of the relationships were originally based on speculation, although final confirmation of this will have to await the identification and checking of more sources.

      This document has been reviewed in detail by Morris Bierbrier, who has made additions and corrections where indicated ("MB" in the footnotes), and has also supplied a copy of the list of obituaries of Empress Eirene Doukas's family[12]. I am very grateful for his helpful collaboration.
      Repository:
        Name: Foundation for Medieval Genealogy
        Vowchurch, HEREFORD HR2 0RB England

      Text: «b»ANDRONIKOS Komnenos«/b» (Balabista in Macedonia [1108]-Autumn 1142). Niketas Choniates names "«i»Alexius, Andronicus et…Isaacius«/i»" as the three brothers of Emperor Manuel, stating that the first two died before their father«u»[184]«/u». «i»Sébastokrator«/i». He died at sea while returning to Constantinople with the body of his older brother Alexios«u»[185]«/u». «b»m«/b» ([1124]) «b»EIRENE«/b» [Aineiadissa], daughter of --- (-[1150/51]). The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified. Nun at the convent of Pantokratoros in 1144. Andronikos Komnenos & his wife had six children:
      a) «b»MARIA Komnene«/b» ([1126]-). Niketas Choniates names "«i»Alexius, Andronicus et…Isaacius«/i»" as the three brothers of Emperor Manuel, stating that Andronikos left daughters "«i»Mariam, Theodoram et Eudociam«/i»"«u»[186]«/u». Niketas Choniates names "«i»Maria…Andronici sebastocrator…filia«/i»" as wife of "«i»Dasiotes«/i»"«u»[187]«/u». Her second marriage is indicated by Ioannes Kinnamos who records that "«i»Ioannes cognomento…Cantacuzenus«/i»" married "«i»Andronici sebastocratoris filiam«/i»"«u»[188]«/u». As the marriages of Maria's known sisters Theodora and Evdokia are recorded in other sources (see below), it is assumed that Kinnamos is referring to a second marriage of Maria in this passage, unless Andronikos Komnenos had a fourth daughter who is otherwise unrecorded. «b»m firstly«/b» (1139) «u»«b»THEODOROS Dasiotes «/u»«/b», son of --- (-Iconium [1143/44]). He died in prison. «b»m secondly«/b» ([1145/50]) «u»«b»IOANNES Kantakouzenos «/u»«/b», son of --- Kantakouzenos & his wife --- (-killed in battle Myriokephalon 17 Sep 1176). «i»Pansébastos«/i».
      b) «b»IOANNES«/b» Doukas «b»Komnenos«/b» ([1128]-killed in battle Myriokephalon shortly after 17 Sep 1176). Niketas Choniates names "«i»Alexius, Andronicus et…Isaacius«/i»" as the three brothers of Emperor Manuel, stating that Andronikos left sons "«i»Ioannem et Alexium«/i»"«u»[189]«/u». «i»Dux«/i» of Cyprus 1155. Cyprus was attacked in 1156 by Renaud Prince of Antioch and Thoros II Lord of the Mountains [Armenia-Rupen] who devastated the island. Ioannes was captured and taken prisoner to Antioch«u»[190]«/u». «i»Protosébastos«/i». «i»Protobestarios«/i». «i»Sébastokratoronthes«/i» 1170. «i»Strategos«/i» of Sardika. «b»m«/b» ([1146]) --- «u»Taronitissa «/u», daughter of --- Taronites & his wife --- (-after 1176). The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified. According to Rüdt-Collenberg, she was the daughter or granddaughter either of Ioannes Taronites or of his brother Gregorios«u»[191]«/u». According to «i»Europäische Stammtafeln«u»«/i»[192]«/u», she was the possible daughter of Mikhael Taronites. She became a nun as «b»MARIA«/b» after her husband died. Ioannes Doukas Komnenos & his wife had two children:
      i) «b»MARIA Komnene«/b» (1154-before Oct 1217). She is named with her father by William of Tyre when he records her marriage with King Amaury«u»[193]«/u». Amaury King of Jerusalem sent ambassadors to Constantinople in [1164/65] to ask the emperor for the hand of an imperial princess but received no answer until they landed at Tyre with Maria Komnene in Aug 1167. Ioannes Kinnamos records the marriage of "«i»una filiarum protosebasti«/i»" and the brother of Baudouin III King of Jerusalem«u»[194]«/u». She was given Nablus as her dower«u»[195]«/u». The «i»Lignages d'Outremer«/i» name "«i»la reyne Marie…niece de l'empereur Manuel«/i»" as wife of «i»"Belleem de Ybelin«/i»"«u»[196]«/u». The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records that "«i»relictam regis Almarici…que fuit de Grecia«/i»" married "«i»Bethuliani de Guibelin«/i»"«u»[197]«/u». "«i»Hugo…rex Cipri«/i»" confirmed the grant to the church of Nicosia by "«i»Philippus de Ybellino«/i»" for the soul of "«i»domine Marie regine, matris sue«/i»" by charter dated Oct 1217«u»[198]«/u». «b»m firstly«/b» (Tyre 29 Aug 1167) as his second wife, «u»«b»AMAURY I King of Jerusalem «/u»«/b», son of FOULQUES King of Jerusalem Comte d'Anjou & his second wife Mélisende Queen of Jerusalem (1136-11 Jul 1174). «b»m secondly«/b» ([1177]) «u»«b»BALIAN of Ibelin «/u»«/b», son of BALIAN of Ibelin Lord of Rama & his wife Helvis of Rama ([1142/43]-[1193/94]). Lord of Nablus, by right of his wife. Lord of Rama and Mirabel.
      ii) [«b»ALEXIOS Komnenos«/b» (-1187). Niketas Choniates records that "«i»Comnenus Alexius, Manuel imperatoris ex fratre nepos«/i»" rebelled against Emperor Andronikos«u»[199]«/u». The primary source which confirms his parentage more specifically has not yet been identified. With Norman help, he was proclaimed emperor in Thessaloniki. Imprisoned and blinded 7 Nov 1185, he died in prison.]
      c) «b»THEODORA Komnene«/b» (-2 Jan 1184, bur Vienna Schottenkloster). Niketas Choniates names "«i»Alexius, Andronicus et…Isaacius«/i»" as the three brothers of Emperor Manuel, stating that Andronikos left daughters "«i»Mariam, Theodoram et Eudociam«/i»"«u»[200]«/u». The «i»Annales Mellicenses«/i» in 1149 record the marriage of "«i»dux Heinricus, filius Liupaldi marchionis«/i»" and "«i»filiam…fratris regis Grecorum Theodora«/i»"«u»[201]«/u». It is likely that Theodora, daughter of Andronikos, married Markgraf Heinrich as Andronikos's brother Isaakios is recorded with a daughter named Theodora and his brother Alexios is only recorded as having one child. The marriage was arranged by Konrad III King of Germany, her husband's half-brother, while he was staying with Emperor Manuel I recuperating from ill-health. The marriage took place during a second visit after King Konrad had left Palestine and was on his way home to Germany«u»[202]«/u». She was invested jointly with her husband with the march of Austria in 1156«u»[203]«/u». She adopted the name «b»GERTRUD«/b» in Austria. The «i»Annales Mellicenses«/i» in 1185 record the death of "«i»Theodora que et Gerdrudis ducissa«/i»"«u»[204]«/u». The «i»Continuatio Zwetlensis Altera«/i» records the death "«i»1184 IV Non Ian«/i»" of "«i»Theodora ducissa Austrie«/i»"«u»[205]«/u». The necrology of Seccovi records the death "«i»IV Non Jan«/i»" of "«i»Theodora ducissa Austrie«/i»"«u»[206]«/u». The necrology of Kloster Neuburg records the death "«i»IV Non Jan«/i»" of "«i»Theodora ux Heinrici ducis«/i»"«u»[207]«/u». «b»m«/b» (betrothed early 1148, [Sep] 1148) as his second wife, «u»«b»HEINRICH II "Jasomirgott" Markgraf of Austria «/u»«/b», son of LEOPOLD III "der Heilige" Markgraf of Austria & his second wife Agnes of Germany [Staufen] (1112-13 Jan 1177, bur Vienna Schottenkloster). Markgraf Heinrich was installed as «b»Duke of Austria«/b» in 1156.
      d) «b»EVDOKIA Komnene«/b». Niketas Choniates names "«i»Alexius, Andronicus et…Isaacius«/i»" as the three brothers of Emperor Manuel, stating that Andronikos left daughters "«i»Mariam, Theodoram et Eudociam«/i»", adding that Evdokia became the mistress of Andronikos Komnenos after the death of her husband«u»[208]«/u». This must refer to a first marriage which is unrecorded elsewhere, as her marriage to Mikhael Gabras is recorded subsequent to her affair with Andronikos Komnenos. «i»Europäische Stammtafeln«u»«/i»[209]«/u» suggests that Evdokia married firstly ([1140/42], divorced 1149) «u»«b»Thoros II Lord of the Mountains «/u»«/b», but there seems to be no basis for this. Rüdt-Collenberg says that "«i»a first marriage with a Byzantine princess, mentioned by Tchamitch for the years 1140-1142, is more than doubtful«/i»"«u»[210]«/u». In any case, assuming that the report by Niketas Choniates is correct, Evdokia's first marriage was ended by the death of her husband, not divorce. In a later passage, Niketas Choniates records the marriage of "«i»Eudocia Comnenia Andronici amica«/i»" and "«i»Michæle…Gabra«/i»"«u»[211]«/u». Ioannes Kinnamos records that "«i»Michael cognomento Gabras«/i»" married "«i»ex fratre Manuelis neptim«/i»"«u»[212]«/u». «b»m firstly«/b» --- (-1150 or before). The identity of Evdokia's first husband is not known. «b»Mistress«/b» ([1150/52]) of her cousin «u»«b»ANDRONIKOS Komnenos«/u»«/b», who later succeeded as «b»Emperor ANDRONIKOS I«/b». «b»m secondly«/b» ([1152/53]) «u»«b»MIKHAEL Gabras «/u»«/b», son of --- (-after 1170). Sébastos.
      e) «b»ALEXIOS Komnenos«/b» ([1136]-murdered 1183). Niketas Choniates names "«i»Alexius, Andronicus et…Isaacius«/i»" as the three brothers of Emperor Manuel, stating that Andronikos left sons "«i»Ioannem et Alexium«/i»"«u»[213]«/u». He was captured by Egyptians in Cyprus in 1158 and taken to Cairo, but sent back unharmed to Constantinople«u»[214]«/u». «i»Protostrator«/i». «i»Protosébastos«/i» 1176. «i»Protobestarios«/i» and «i»sébastokratoronthes«/i». He was the lover of dowager Empress Maria, and headed her Regency Council 1180-1182. Niketas Choniates names "«i»protosebastus et protovestiarius Alexius Comnenus, Manuelis patruelis«/i»" when recording that he was adviser to Emperor Alexios with the latter's mother«u»[215]«/u». Unpopular because of his reliance on Latin advisers, he was captured by rioters, but released by Andronikos Komnenos (later Emperor Andronikos I) only to be blinded and murdered by him later. «b»m«/b» «u»«b»MARIA Doukaina«/u»«/b», daughter of ---. The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified. «b»Mistress«/b»: «u»«b»MARIE of Antioch «/u»«/b», widow of «u»«b»Emperor MANUEL I«/u»«/b», daughter of RAYMOND de Poitiers Prince of Antioch & his wife Constance Pss of Antioch (1145-murdered 27 Aug 1182). Alexios Komnenos & his wife had two children:
      i) ANDRONIKOS Komnenos (-young). The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. He died after falling from his horse.
      ii) son (-young). The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.
    2. Abbrev: Ancestral File (R)
      Title: Ancestral File (R)
      Author: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
      Publication: Copyright (c) 1987, June 1998, data as of 5 January 1998
      Repository:
        Name: Family History Library
        Salt Lake City, Utah 84150 USA
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