Name: Emporer Louis I "The Pious" of Roman Empire
ALIA: Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire
Birth: AUG 778 in Casseneuil, Lot-et-Garonne, Aquitaine, France
Burial: Saint Pierre aux Nonnains Basilica in Metz
Death: 20 JUN 840
Birth: AUG 778
Louis the Pious (778 – 20 June 840), also called the Fair, and the Debonaire, was the King of Aquitaine from 781. He was also King of the Franks and co-Emperor (as Louis I) with his father, Charlemagne, from 813. As the only surviving adult son of Charlemagne, he became the sole ruler of the Franks after his father's death in 814, a position which he held until his death, save for the period 833–34, during which he was deposed.
During his reign in Aquitaine Louis was charged with the defence of the Empire's southwestern frontier. He reconquered Barcelona from the Muslims in 801 and re-asserted Frankish authority over Pamplona and the Basques south of the Pyrenees in 813. As emperor he included his adult sons—Lothair, Pepin, and Louis—in the government and sought to establish a suitable division of the realm between them. The first decade of his reign was characterised by several tragedies and embarrassments, notably the brutal treatment of his nephew Bernard of Italy, for which Louis atoned in a public act of self-debasement. In the 830s his empire was torn by civil war between his sons, only exacerbated by Louis's attempts to include his son Charles by his second wife in the succession plans. Though his reign ended on a high note, with order largely restored to his empire, it was followed by three years of civil war. Louis is generally compared unfavourably to his father, though the problems he faced were of a distinctly different sort.
Birth and rule in Aquitaine
Louis was born while his father Charlemagne was on campaign in Spain, at the Carolingian villa of Cassinogilum, according to Einhard and the anonymous chronicler called Astronomus; the place is usually identified with Chasseneuil, near Poitiers. He was the third son of Charlemagne by his wife Hildegard.
Louis was crowned king of Aquitaine as a child in 781 and sent there with regents and a court. Charlemagne constituted the sub-kingdom in order to secure the border of his kingdom after his devastating defeat at the hands of Basques in Roncesvalles in (778).
Louis fell ill soon after his final victorious campaigns and went to his summer hunting lodge on an island in the Rhine, by his palace at Ingelheim. On 20 June 840, he died, in the presence of many bishops and clerics and in the arms of his half-brother Drogo, though Charles and Judith were absent in Poitiers. Soon dispute plunged the surviving brothers into a civil war that was only settled in 843 by the Treaty of Verdun, which split the Frankish realm into three parts, to become the kernels of France and Germany, with Burgundy and the Low Countries between them. The dispute over the kingship of Aquitaine was not fully settled until 860.
Louis the Pious, along with his half-brother Drogo, were buried in Saint Pierre aux Nonnains Basilica in Metz.
Marriage and issue
By his first wife, Ermengarde of Hesbaye (married ca 794-98), he had three sons and three daughters:
Lothair (795–855), king of Middle Francia
Pepin (797–838), king of Aquitaine
Adelaide (b. c. 799)
Rotrude (b. 800), married Gerard
Hildegard (or Matilda) (b. c. 802), married Gerard, Count of Auvergne
Louis the German (c. 805–875), king of East Francia
By his second wife, Judith of Bavaria, he had a daughter and a son:
Gisela, married Eberhard I of Friuli
Charles the Bald, king of West Francia
By Theodelinde of Sens, he had two illegitimate children:
Arnulf of Sens
Father: Emperor Charlemagne b: 02 APR 747 in Ingelheim-am-Rhein, Mainz-Bingen, Rhineland-Palatinate
Mother: Empress Hildegard of Vinzgouw b: 758 in Savoy or Of Aachen, Rhineland, Prussia
Empress Ermengarde de Hesbaye b: ABT 778 in Hesbaye, Liege, Belgium
- Emperor Lothar I Carolingian of Rome b: ABT 795 in Altdorf, Eichstatt, Bavaria, Germany
- King Louis II "The German" Carolingian b: ABT 805
- Bertha of Tours
- Princess Ermengarde Caroling de Lorraine of Italy b: ABT 832 in Alsace-Lorraine
- King Pepin of Aquitaine b: 797
- Rotrude of Auvergne* b: 800
- Hildegarde of Aquitaine b: ABT 802
- Princess Adelaide of Tours b: ABT 800 in Tours, France
Empress Judith Welf of Bavaria b: ABT 800 in Altdorf, Eichstatt, Bavaria, Germany
in Aix La Chapelle, Austrasia
- Emperor Charles Roman II "the Bald" of France b: 13 JUN 823 in Frankfurt, Hessen-Nassau, Prussia
- Princess Gisela Carolingian b: 821 in Frankfurt, Hesse, Nassau, Germany
- Gisela Caroling de Baviere of Aquitaine b: ABT 820 in Aquitaine, France