Name: Rudolph I von Habsburg
Given Name: Rudolph I
Surname: von Habsburg
Suffix: Count Of Hapsburg
Birth: 1 May 1218 in Schloss Limburg, Rhein, Freiburg, Baden
Sources for this Information:
Death: 15 Jul 1291 in Speyer
date: [Ref: ES I #12, ES I #14, Paget HRHCharles p76], parents: [Ref: ES I #12]
Sources for this Information:
Ancestral File Number Es:I-12, Es:Iii-201A
Change Date: 18 Feb 2013 at 18:57
date: [Ref: ES I #12, ES I #14, ES II #21, Paget HRHCharles p76] 1291 [Ref: CMH p796], place: [Ref: ES II #21]
Title: Holy Roman Emperor, Count of Habsburg BET 1273 AND 1291
Rudolph I, also known as Rudolph of Habsburg (German: Rudolf von Habsburg, Latin Rudolfus) May 1, 1218 - July 15, 1291) was King of the Romans from 1273 until his death. He played a vital role in raising the Habsburg family to a leading position among the German feudal dynasties.
Rudolf was the son of Albert IV, Count of Habsburg, and Hedwig, daughter of Ulrich, Count of Kyburg, and was born in Limburg im Breisgau. At his father's death in 1239, Rudolf inherited the family estates in Alsace and Aargau. In 1245 he married Anne, daughter of Burkhard III, Count of Hohenberg. As a result, Rudolf became an important vassal in Swabia, the ancient Alemannic stem duchy.
Rudolf paid frequent visits to the court of his godfather, the Emperor Frederick II, and his loyalty to Frederick and his son, Conrad IV of Germany, was richly rewarded by grants of land. In 1254 he was excommunicated by Pope Innocent IV as a supporter of King Conrad, due to ongoing political conflicts between the Emperor, who held the Kingdom of Sicily and wanted to reestablish his power in Northern Italy, especially in Lombardy, and the Papacy, whose States lay in between and feared being overpowered by the Emperor.
Rise to power
The disorder in Germany after the fall of the Hohenstaufen afforded an opportunity for Rudolph to increase his possessions. His wife was a heiress; and on the death of his childless maternal uncle, Hartmann VI, Count of Kyburg, in 1264, he seized Hartmann's valuable estates. Successful feuds with the bishops of Strassburg and Basel further augmented his wealth and reputation, including rights over various tracts of land that he purchased from abbots and others. He also possessed large estates inherited from his father in the regions now known as Switzerland and Alsace.
These various sources of wealth and influence rendered Rudolph the most powerful prince and noble in southwestern Germany (where the tribal duchy Swabia had disintegrated, leaving room for its vassals to become quite independent) when, in the autumn of 1273, the princes met to elect a king after the death of Richard of Cornwall. His election in Frankfurt on 29 September 1273, when he was 55 years old, was largely due to the efforts of his brother-in-law, Frederick III of Hohenzollern, Burgrave of Nuremberg. The support of Albert II, Duke of Saxony (Wittenberg) and of Louis II, Count Palatine of the Rhine and Duke of Upper Bavaria, had been purchased by betrothing them to two of Rudolph's daughters. As a result, Otakar II (1230-78), King of Bohemia, a candidate for the throne and grandson of Philip of Swabia, King of Germany (being the son of the eldest surviving daughter), was almost alone in opposing Frederick. Another candidate was Frederick of Meissen (1257-1323), a young grandson of the excommunicated Emperor Frederick II who did not yet have a principality of his own as his father yet lived.
King of Germany
Rudolph was crowned in Aachen Cathedral on 24 October 1273. Friedrich Schiller in Der Graf von Hapsburg ("The Count of Hapsburg") presents a fictionalized rendering of the feast King Rudolf held following his coronation. To win the approbation of the Pope, Rudolph renounced all imperial rights in Rome, the papal territory, and Sicily, and promised to lead a new crusade. Pope Gregory X, in spite of Otakar's protests, not only recognized Rudolph himself, but persuaded Alfonso X, King of Castile (another grandson of Philip of Swabia), who had been chosen German king in 1257 as the successor to William of Holland, to do the same. Thus, Rudolph surpassed the two heirs of the Hohenstaufen dynasty that he had earlier served so loyally.
In November 1274 it was decided by the Diet of the Realm in Nuremberg that all crown estates seized since the death of the Emperor Frederick II must be restored, and that Otakar must answer to the Diet for not recognizing the new king. Otakar refused to appear or to restore the provinces of Austria, Styria, Carinthia and Carniola, which he had claimed through his first wife, a Babenberg heiress, and which he had seized while disputing them with another Babenberg heir, Hermann VI, Margrave of Baden. Rudolf refuted Otakar's succession to the Babenberg patrimony, declaring that the provinces reverted to the crown due to the lack of male-line heirs (a position that conflicted with the provisions of Privilegium Minus). King Otakar was placed under the state ban; and in June 1276 war was declared against him. Having persuaded Otakar's ally Henry I, Duke of Lower Bavaria, to switch sides, Rudolph compelled the Bohemian king to cede the four provinces to the control of the royal administration in November 1276. Rudolf then invested Otakar with Bohemia, betrothed one of his daughters to Otakar's son Wenceslaus, and made a triumphal entry into Vienna. Otakar, however, raised questions about the execution of the treaty, made an alliance with some Polish chiefs, and procured the support of several German princes, including his former ally, Henry of Lower Bavaria. To meet this coalition, Rudolph formed an alliance with Ladislaus IV, King of Hungary, and gave additional privileges to the citizens of Vienna. On 26 August 1278 the rival armies met on the banks of the River March in the Battle of Dürnkrut and Jedenspeigen where Otakar was defeated and killed. Moravia was subdued and its government entrusted to Rudolph's representatives, leaving Kunigunda, the Queen Regent of Bohemia, in control of only the province surrounding Prague, while the young Wenceslaus was again betrothed to one of Rudolph's daughters.
Rudolph's attention next turned to the possessions in Austria and the adjacent provinces, which were taken into the royal domain. He spent several years establishing his authority there but found some difficulty in establishing his family as successors to the rule of those provinces. At length the hostility of the princes was overcome. In December 1282, in Augsburg, Rudolph invested his sons, Albert and Rudolph, with the duchies of Austria and Styria and so laid the foundation of the House of Hapsburg. Additionally, he made the twelve-year-old Rudolf Duke of Swabia, which had been without a ruler since Conradin's execution. The 27-year-old Duke Albert (married since 1274 to a daughter of Count Meinhard II of Tirol (1238-95)) was capable enough to hold some sway in the new patrimony.
In 1286 King Rudolf fully invested the Duchy of Carinthia, one of the provinces conquered from Otakar, to Albert's father-in-law Meinhard. The princes of the realm did not allow Rudolf to give everything that was recovered to the royal domain to his own sons, and his allies needed their rewards too.
Turning to the west, in 1281 he compelled Philip, Count Palatine of Burgundy, to cede some territory to him, then forced the citizens of Bern to pay the tribute that they had been refusing, and in 1289 marched against Philip's successor, Otto IV, compelling him to do homage.
In 1281 his first wife died. On 5 February 1284 he married Isabella, daughter of Hugh IV, Duke of Burgundy, his western neighbor.
Rudolph was not very successful in restoring internal peace to Germany. Orders were indeed issued for the establishment of landpeaces in Bavaria, Franconia and Swabia, and afterwards for the whole of Germany. But the king lacked the power, resources, or determination, to enforce them, although in December 1289 he led an expedition into Thuringia where he destroyed a number of robber-castles.
In 1291 he attempted to secure the election of his son Albert as German king. However, the princes refused claiming inability to support two kings, but in reality, perhaps, leery of the increasing power of the Hapsburg.
 Persecution of the Jews
In 1286, Rudolf I instituted a new persecution of the Jews, declaring them servi camerae ("serfs of the treasury"), which had the effect of negating their political freedoms. Along with many others, Rabbi Meir of Rothenburg, perhaps the greatest rabbi of the time, left Germany with family and followers, but was captured in Lombardy and imprisoned in a fortress in Alsace. Tradition has it that a large ransom of 23,000 marks silver was raised for him (by the ROSH), but Rabbi Meir refused it, for fear of encouraging the imprisonment of other rabbis. He died in prison after seven years. Fourteen years after his death a ransom was paid for his body by Alexander ben Shlomo (Susskind) Wimpfen, who was subsequently laid to rest beside the Maharam. 
Rudolph died in Speyer on July 15, 1291, and was buried in the Speyer Cathedral. Although he had a large family, he was survived by only one son, Albert, afterwards the German king Albert I. Most of his daughters outlived him, apart from Katharina who had died in 1282 during childbirth and Hedwig who had died in 1285/6.
Rudolph's reign is most memorable for his establishment of the House of Hapsburg, which henceforth held sway over the southeastern and southwestern parts of the realm. In the rest of Germany, he left the princes largely to their own devices.
In the Divine Comedy, Dante finds Rudolph sitting outside the gates of Purgatory with his contemporaries, who berate him as "he who neglected that which he ought to have done".
Family and children
He was married twice. First, in 1245, to Gertrude of Hohenberg and second, in 1284, to Isabelle of Burgundy, daughter of Hugh IV, Duke of Burgundy and Beatrice of Champagne. All children were from the first marriage.
1. Albert I of Germany (July 1255 - 1 May 1308), Duke of Austria and also of Styria.
2. Hartmann (1263, Rheinfelden-21 December 1281), drowned in Rheinau.
3. Rudolph II, Duke of Austria and Styria (1270-10 May 1290, Prague), titular Duke of Swabia, father of John the Patricide of Austria.
4. Matilda (ca. 1251/53, Rheinfelden-23 December 1304, Munich), married 1273 in Aachen to Louis II, Duke of Bavaria and became mother of Rudolf I, Count Palatine of the Rhine and Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor.
5. Katharina (1256-4 April 1282, Landshut), married 1279 in Vienna to Otto III, Duke of Bavaria who later (after her death) became the disputed King Bela V of Hungary and left no surviving issue.
6. Agnes (ca. 1257-11 October 1322, Wittenberg), married 1273 to Albert II, Duke of Saxe-Wittenberg and became the mother of Rudolf I, Elector of Saxony.
7. Hedwig (d. 1285/86), married 1270 in Vienna to Otto VI, Margrave of Brandenburg and left no issue.
8. Clementia (ca. 1262-after 7 February 1293), married 1281 in Vienna to Charles Martel of Anjou, the Papal claimant to the throne of Hungary and mother of king Charles I of Hungary, as well as of queen Clementia of France, herself the mother of the baby king John I of France.
9. Guta (Jutte/Bona) (13 March 1271-18 June 1297, Prague), married 24 January 1285 to King Wenceslaus II of Bohemia and became the mother of king Wenceslaus III of Bohemia, Poland and Hungary, of queen Anna I of Bohemia, duchess of Carinthia, and of queen Elisabeth I of Bohemia, countess of Luxembourg.
King Rudolf also had an illegitimate son, Albrecht I of Schenkenberg, Count of Löwenstein.
This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
* Karl-Friedrich Krieger, Rudolf von Habsburg, Darmstadt: Primus Verlag, 2003, 294 S.
RUDOLF von Habsburg, son of ALBRECHT IV "der Weise" Graf von Habsburg & his wife Heilwig von Kiburg (Burg Limburg, Upper Rhine 1 May 1216-Germersheim near Speyer 15 Jul 1291, bur Speyer Cathedral). The Ellenhardi Chronicon names "Ruodolfus rex Romanorum" as son of "Alberti comitis in Habichburg?lantgravius Alsatie superioris". The Chronicon Colmarense records the birth "1218 Kal Mai" of "comes Rudolfus de Habisburch", specifying that he was "de progenie ducis Zeringie". He succeeded his father in 1240 as Graf von Habsburg, Landgraf von Thurgau, at which time the family?s territories extended from the left bank of the Rhine at Lake Constance to the Vosges. He was one of the few Swabian noblemen who remained loyal to Konrad IV King of Germany against the papal party and the anti-king Willem II Count of Holland, but defected to the papal side in 1251. Landgraf von Kiburg, after the death of his maternal uncle Graf Hartmann in 1264. He was elected RUDOLF I King of Germany 1 Oct 1273 at Frankfurt-am-Main, with the support especially of Werner von Eppenstein Archbishop of Mainz and of Friedrich Burggraf von Nürnberg, defeating the rival candidate P?emysl Otakar II King of Bohemia and Duke of Austria. He was crowned at Aachen 24 Oct 1273. King Rudolf immediately implemented the policy of return to the empire of all properties unlawfully appropriated since the deposition of Emperor Friedrich II in 1245, promulgated at the Diet of Nürnburg 19 Nov 1274. This included the return of the duchies of Austria and Styria from P?emysl Otakar II King of Bohemia, against whom Rudolf declared war. A charter dated 19 Oct 1275 confirmed the consecration of the church of Lausanne, recording as present "Rodulfo Rege Alemaniæ?regina Anna uxor dicti Regis cum liberis eorundem Alberto, Hartmanno, Rodulfo et Samsone cum aliis quatuor filiabus dicti regis". Rudolf became Duke of Austria and Steiermark (Styria) after King Otakar?s abdication under the temporary peace of 21 Nov 1276, confirmed by treaty 6 May 1277. Rudolf's position was confirmed definitively after he defeated King Otakar at the battle of Marchfeld near Dürnkrut 26 Aug 1278. Duke Rudolf abdicated in Austria and Styria in favour of his sons Albrecht I and Rudolf II in Dec 1282. Negotiations were underway with Pope Gregory X for Rudolf?s coronation as emperor 2 Feb 1276, but these were suspended by the Pope?s death 10 Jan 1276. The premature deaths of the three succeeding Popes prevented finalisation of the negotiations, although Rudolf renounced all claims over the Romagna 14 Feb 1279 as part of the deal proposed with Pope Nicolas III. Pope Honorius IV set 2 Feb 1287 for the ceremony but Rudolf postponed the date as he was unable to arrive in Rome in time. German/Papal rivalry over the extent of the papal powers over the German clergy resulted in further postponements. King Rudolf died during the papacy of Nicolas IV without the coronation ever having taken place. The necrology of Königsfelden records the death "Id Jul 1290" of "dominus Ruod Romanorum rex". The Gesta Alberti Regis, ducis Austriæ records that King Rudolf was buried at Speyer.
m firstly (1243 or 1245) GERTRUD [Anna] von Hohenberg, daughter of BURCHARD V Graf von Hohenberg [Zollern] & his wife Mechtild von Tübingen ([1230/35]-Vienna 16 Feb 1281, bur Basel Münster). The Chronicon Colmarense records that "comitissa uxor regis Rudolfi" was "filia comitis Burkardi de Hohenberg". The Annales Sindelfingenses record that "regina Rudolfi" was "filia sororis comitis Rudolfi de Tuwingen". Her parentage is confirmed by the charter dated 27 Feb 1271 under which her husband "Rudolfus?de Kiburch et de Hapsburch comes nec non Alsacie Lantgravius" sold property "pro dote nobilis mulieris Gerdrudis uxoris nostre" to Kloster St Märgen auf dem Schwarzwald, with the consent of "fratrum suorum Alberti, Burchardi et Ulrici Comitum de Hohinberg", by charter dated 27 Feb 1271. The Annales Sancti Udalrici et Afræ Augustenses name "Anna uxor domini Rudolfi regis de Hapsburg" as sister of "comitem de Heigerloch". Heiress of Schlettstadt in Alsace. A charter dated 19 Oct 1275 confirmed the consecration of the church of Lausanne, recording as present "Rodulfo Rege Alemaniæ?regina Anna uxor dicti Regis cum liberis eorundem Alberto, Hartmanno, Rodulfo et Samsone cum aliis quatuor filiabus dicti regis". The Ratisponensis Annales record the death in 1281 of "uxor Rudolfi Romanorum regis Anna". The Annales Hospitalis Argentinenses record the death in 1281 of "regina uxor Rudolfi regis" in Bohemia and her burial "in Basilea". The Annales Sindelfingenses record the death "1281 in vigilia Matthiæ" of "regina uxor Rudolfi regis in Wina" and her burial "in Basilea". The necrology of Königsfelden records the death "XIII Kal Mar" of "Anna regina Romanorum consors?Ruodolfi Romanorum regis".
m secondly (Rumarico monte 5 Feb 1284 or Basel [28 May/24 Jun] 1284 or [5 Feb or 6 Mar] 1285) as her first husband, AGNES [Isabelle] de Bourgogne, daughter of HUGUES IV Duke of Burgundy & his second wife Béatrice de Champagne (-Chambly Aug 1323, bur Paris église des Grands Augustins). The Ellenhardi Chronicon records the marriage in 1284 "in civitate Basilicasi?intra festum Pentecostes et festum Iohannis baptiste" of King Rudolf and "Elisabetam filiam ducis Ottonis senioris Burgundie dicti de Tygun apud Rymilisberg". The Annales Colmarienses record the marriage "in Rumarico monte in festo sancte Agate" of "rex Ruodolphus" and "uxorem Gallicam" in 1284. She adopted the name AGNES in 1284. She married secondly Pierre [IX] "le Jeune" de Chambly Sire de Neaufles (-1319). The primary source which confirms her second marriage has not yet been identified.
Mistress (1): ITA, daughter of ---. The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.
 Ellenhardi Chronicon, Gesta Invictissim domini Rudolfi Romanorum regis, MGH SS XVII, p. 123.
 Chronicon Colmarense, MGH SS XVII, p. 240.
 Bayley (1949), pp. 32 and 34.
 Leuschner (1980), pp. 94-5.
 Gingins-la-Sarra, F. de and Forez, F. (eds.) (1846) Recueil des Chartes, Statuts et Documents concernant l'ancien évêché de Lausanne (Lausanne) (? Lausanne Bishopric?) XXVI, p. 60.
 Necrologium Habsburgicum Monasterii Campi Regis, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 357.
 Gesta Alberti Regis, ducis Austriæ, MGH SS XVII, p. 134.
 Chronicon Colmarense, MGH SS XVII, p. 244.
 Annales Sindelfingenses 1277, MGH SS XVII, p. 302.
 Monumenta Hohenbergica 60, p. 37.
 Annales Sancti Udalrici et Afræ Augustenses 1297, MGH SS XVII, p. 434.
 Lausanne Bishopric XXVI, p. 60.
 Eberhardi Archidiaconi Ratisponensis Annales 1294, MGH SS XVII, p. 594.
 Annales Hospitalis Argentinenses 1281, MGH SS XVII, p. 104.
 Annales Sindelfingenses 1281, MGH SS XVII, p. 302.
 Necrologium Habsburgicum Monasterii Campi Regis, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 357.
 Ellenhardi Chronicon, Gesta Invictissim domini Rudolfi Romanorum regis 1284, MGH SS XVII, p. 127.
 Annales Colmarienses Maiores 1284, MGH SS XVII, p. 211.
Emperor [Ref: Tapsell Dynasties p171, CP II p69, Paget HRHCharles p76] Count of Hapsburg [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p76] King of Habsburg [Ref: ES I #23]
1273-91: Holy Roman Emperor [Ref: Tapsell Dynasties p171]
Father: Albrecht IV Of Habsburg b: Abt 1188 in Schloss Limburg, Freiburg, Baden, Germany
Mother: Heilwig Of Kiburg
Gertrude Anna Of Hohenberg b: 1225
Sources for this Information:
date: [Ref: ES I.1 #126 (with corr in XXII)] 1245 [Ref: ES I #12, ES I #14] 1246 [Ref: ES I #144] before 1240 [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p76] first marriage of Rudolf [Ref: CMH p796], child: [Ref: CMH p796, ES I #14, ES I.1 #41, Paget HRHCharles p76]
- Change Date:
13 Oct 2012
- Agnes Of Hapsburg
- Clementia Of Hapsburg
- Albert I von Habsburg b: Jul 1248 in Habsburg, Argau, Switzerland
- Mathlida (Mechtild) Von Habsburg b: Abt 1251 in Habsburg, Argau, Switzerland
- Princess Of Austria Jutte Von Hapsburg b: 13 Jan 1271 in Habsburg, Argau, Switzerland
Isabella Of Burgundy b: 1270
5 Feb 1285
Sources for this Information:
date: [Ref: ES I #12] 15.II 1285 [Ref: ES I #14] 6.II 1284 [Ref: ES II #21], place: [Ref: ES I #12, ES I #14, ES II #21]
- Change Date:
13 Oct 2012