Davis - not a tree but a forest

Entries: 166493    Updated: 2013-03-26 20:56:18 UTC (Tue)    Owner: Richard Ervin Davis

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  • ID: I160117
  • Name: Ludwig Von Bayern
  • Given Name: Ludwig
  • Surname: Von Bayern
  • Prefix: Emperor
  • Suffix: IV
  • Sex: M
  • Birth: 1 Apr 1282 in Munchen, Oberbayern, Bavaria
  • Note:
    Sources for this Information:
    date: [Ref: ES I #24, Paget HRHCharles p77], parents: [Ref: ES I #23]
  • Death: 11 Oct 1347 in Kloster Furstenfeld, Furstenfeldbruck, Oerayern, Bavaria
  • Note:
    Sources for this Information:
    date: [Ref: ES I #24, ES II #4, Paget HRHCharles p77] 1347 [Ref: CMH p1034, Watney WALLOP #408]
    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
  • Event: Reigned Bet 1294 and 1347 Duke Of Bavaria
  • Event: Reigned Bet 1329 and 1347 Holy Roman Emperor
  • _UID: 1C038AB57C5C6648BBED91B9DAE5C9F04EE1
  • Change Date: 18 Mar 2013 at 12:00
  • Note:
    Louis IV of Bavaria (also known as Ludwig the Bavarian) of the House of Wittelsbach (born 1282; died October 11, 1347) was duke of Bavaria from 1294/1301 together with his brother Rudolf I, also count of the Palatinate until 1329 and, German king since 1314 and crowned as Holy Roman Emperor in 1328. Louis died on October 11, 1347 when he suffered a stroke during a bear-hunt in Puch near F?rstenfeldbruck. He is buried in the Frauenkirche in Munich.

    Louis was a son of Louis II, Duke of Upper Bavaria, and Mechthild (Matilda), a daughter of King Rudolph I.

    Early reign as Duke of Upper Bavaria

    Though Louis was partly educated in Vienna and became co-regent of his brother Rudolf I in Upper Bavaria in 1301 with the support of his Habsburg mother Mechthild and her brother King Albert I, he quarrelled with the Habsburgs from 1307 over possessions in Lower Bavaria. The war against his brother Rudolf due to new disputes on the partition of their lands was ended in 1313, when peace was made at Munich.

    In the same year Louis defeated his Habsburg cousin Frederick the Handsome. Originally, he was a friend of Frederick, with whom he had been raised. However, armed conflict arose when the tutelage over the young Dukes of Lower Bavaria was entrusted to Frederick. On November 9, 1313, Frederick was beaten by Louis in the Battle of Gamelsdorf and had to renounce the tutelage.

    Election as German King and conflict with Habsburg

    After the death of Holy Roman Emperor Henry VII, the Luxemburg party among the prince electors set aside Henry's son, John von Luxemburg, because of his youth and chose Louis as rival king to Frederick the Handsome. Louis was elected in October 1314 upon the instigation of the Archbishop of Mainz with four of the seven votes. Louis then was quickly crowned by the Archbishop of Cologne, in Bonn instead of Aachen. In the following conflict between both kings Louis recognized in 1316 the independence of Switzerland from Habsburg.

    After several years of bloody war, victory finally seemed within the grasp of Frederick, who was strongly supported by his brother Leopold. However, Frederick's army was in the end decisively beaten in the Battle of M?hldorf on September 28, 1322 on the Ampfing Heath, where Frederick and 1300 nobles from Austria and Salzburg were captured.

    Louis held Frederick captive in Trausnitz Castle for three years, but the determined resistance by Frederick's brother Leopold, the retreat of the King of Bohemia from his alliance, and the Pope's ban induced Louis to release Frederick in the Treaty of Trausnitz of March 13, 1325. In this agreement, Frederick finally recognized Louis as legitimate ruler and undertook to return to captivity if he did not succeed in convincing his brothers to submit to Louis.

    As he did not manage to overcome Leopold's obstinacy, Frederick returned to Munich as a prisoner, even though the Pope had released him from his oath. Louis, who was impressed by such nobility, renewed the old friendship with Frederick and they both agreed to rule the Empire jointly.

    Since the Pope and the electors strongly objected to this agreement, another treaty was signed at Ulm on January 7, 1326, according to which Frederick would administer Germany as King of the Romans, while Louis would be crowned as Holy Roman Emperor in Italy.

    However, after Leopold's death in 1326, Frederick withdrew from the regency of the Empire and returned to rule only Austria. He died on January 13, 1330.

    Coronation as Holy Roman Emperor and conflict with the Pope
    Golden Bull of Louis IV 1326
    Enlarge
    Golden Bull of Louis IV 1326

    Despite Louis's victory, Pope John XXII still refused to ratify his election, and in 1324 he excommunicated Louis, though the sanction had less effect than in earlier disputes between emperors and the papacy.

    After the reconciliation with Habsburg in 1326, Louis marched to Italy and was crowned King of Italy in Milan in 1327. Already in 1323 Louis had sent an army to Italy to protect Milan against Naples.

    In January 1328 he entered Rome and had himself crowned emperor by the aged senator Sciarra Colonna, called captain of the Roman people. Three months later Louis published a decree declaring "Jacque de Cahors" (Pope John XXII) deposed on grounds of heresy. He then installed a Spiritual Franciscan, Pietro Rainalducci as Antipope Nicholas V, who was deposed after Louis left Rome in early 1329. In fulfilment of an oath, on his return from Italy Louis founded Ettal Abbey on April 28, 1330. Philosophers such as Michael of Cesena, Marsilius of Padua and William of Ockham were now protected at the emperor's court in Munich.

    The failure of later negotiations with the papacy led in 1338 to the declaration at Rhense by six electors to the effect that election by all or the majority of the electors automatically conferred the royal title and rule over the empire, without papal confirmation.

    Louis also allied in 1337 with Edward III of England against Philip VI of France, the protector of the new Pope Benedict XII in Avignon. In 1338 Edward III was the emperor's guest at the Imperial Diet in the Kastorkirche at Coblence. But in 1341 Louis deserted Edward and came temporarily to terms with Philip.

    Imperial privileges

    Louis IV was a protector of the Teutonic Knights. In 1337 he allegedly bestowed upon the Teutonic Order a privilege to conquer Lithuania and Russia, although the Order had only petitioned for three small territories. Later he forbade the Order to stand trial before foreign courts in their territorial conflicts with foreign rulers.

    Louis concentrated his energies also on the economic development of the cities of the empire, so his name can be found in many city chronicles for the privileges he granted.

    Dynastic policy

    In 1323 Louis acquired Brandenburg for his eldest son Louis V. With the Treaty of Pavia the emperor returned the Palatinate to his nephews in 1329. The duchy of Carinthia was released as an imperial fief on May 2, 1335 in Linz to his Habsburg relative Albert II, Duke of Austria. In 1340 Louis inherited Lower Bavaria and then reunited the duchy of Bavaria.

    In 1342 Louis also acquired Tyrol by voiding the first marriage of Margarete Maultasch with John Henry of Bohemia and marrying her to his own son Louis V, thus alienating the house of Luxemburg. In 1345 the emperor further antagonized the lay princes by conferring Hainaut, NETHERLANDS, Zeeland and Friesland upon his wife Margaret of Holland.

    Conflict with Luxemburg

    The acquisition of these territories and his restless foreign policy had earned Louis many enemies among the German princes. In the summer of 1346 the Luxemburg Charles IV was elected rival king, with the support of Pope Clement VI. Louis himself obtained much support from the Imperial Free Cities and the knighthood and successfully resisted Charles, who was widely regarded as a papal puppet ("rex clericorum"). Also the Habsburg dukes stayed loyal to Louis. In the Battle of Cr?cy Charles' father John of Luxemburg was killed; Charles himself also took part in the battle but escaped.

    Louis' sudden death the following year avoided a longer civil war. The sons of Louis supported G?nther von Schwarzburg as new rival king to Charles but finally joined the Luxemburg party after G?nther's early death in 1349 and divided the Wittelsbach possesions among each other again.

    Family and children

    He was first married to Beatrix von Silesia-Glogau. Their children were:

    1. Mathilde (aft. June 21, 1313 ? July 2, 1346, Mei?en), married at N?rnberg July 1, 1329 Friedrich II, Markgraf of Mei?en (d. 1349)
    2. a child (b. September 1314)
    3. Anna (c. 1316 ? January 29, 1319, Kastl)
    4. Louis V the Brandenburger (1316?1361), duke of Upper Bavaria, margrave of Brandenburg, count of Tyrol
    5. Agnes (b. c. 1318)
    6. Stephen II (1319?1375), duke of Lower Bavaria

    In 1324 he married Margaret of Holland, countess of Hainaut and Holland. Their children were:

    1. Margarete (1325?1374), married:
    1. in 1351 in Ofen Stephen, Duke of Slavonia (d. 1354);
    2. 1357/58 Gerlach von Hohenlohe.
    2. Anna (c. 1326 ? June 3, 1361, Fontenelles) married John I of Lower Bavaria (d. 1340)
    3. Louis VI the Roman (1328?1365), duke of Upper Bavaria, elector of Brandenburg.
    4. Elisabeth (1329 ? August 2, 1402, Stuttgart), married with:
    1. Cangrande II della Scala, Lord of Verona (d. 1359) in Verona on November 22, 1350;
    2. Count Ulrich of W?rttemberg (d. 1388) in 1362.
    5. William V of Holland (1330?1388), as William I duke of Lower Bavaria, as Wiliam III count of Hainaut
    6. Albert I of Holland (1336?1404), duke of Lower Bavaria, count of Hainaut and Holland
    7. Otto V the Bavarian (1340?1379), duke of Upper Bavaria, elector of Brandenburg
    8. Beatrix (1344 ? December 25, 1359), married bef. October 25, 1356 Eric XII of Sweden
    9. Agnes (Munich, 1345 ? November 11, 1352, Munich)
    10. Louis (October 1347 ? 1348)
    Louis IV of Bavaria (also known as Ludwig the Bavarian) of the House of Wittelsbach (born 1282; died October 11, 1347) was duke of Bavaria from 1294/1301 together with his brother Rudolf I, also count of the Palatinate until 1329 and, German king since 1314 and crowned as Holy Roman Emperor in 1328. Louis died on October 11, 1347 when he suffered a stroke during a bear-hunt in Puch near F?rstenfeldbruck. He is buried in the Frauenkirche in Munich.

    Louis was a son of Louis II, Duke of Upper Bavaria, and Mechthild, a daughter of King Rudolph I.

    Early reign as Duke of Upper Bavaria

    Though Louis was partly educated in Vienna and became co-regent of his brother Rudolf I in Upper Bavaria in 1301 with the support of his Habsburg mother Mechthild and her brother King Albert I, he quarrelled with the Habsburgs from 1307 over possessions in Lower Bavaria. The war against his brother Rudolf due to new disputes on the partition of their lands was ended in 1313, when peace was made at Munich.

    In the same year Louis defeated his Habsburg cousin Frederick the Handsome. Originally, he was a friend of Frederick, with whom he had been raised. However, armed conflict arose, when the tutelage over the young Dukes of Lower Bavaria was entrusted to Frederick. On November 9, 1313, Frederick was beaten by Louis in the Battle of Gamelsdorf and had to renounce the tutelage.
    [edit]

    Election as German King and conflict with Habsburg

    After the death of Holy Roman Emperor Henry VII the Luxemburg party among the prince electors set aside Henry's son, John von Luxemburg, because of his youth and chose Louis as rival king to Frederick the Handsome. Louis was elected in October 1314 upon the instigation of the Archbishop of Mainz with four of the seven votes. Louis then was quickly crowned in Bonn by the Archbishop of Cologne, instead of in Aachen. In the following conflict between both kings Louis recognized in 1316 the independence of Switzerland from Habsburg.

    After several years of bloody war, victory finally seemed to be within Frederick's grasp, who was strongly supported by his brother Leopold. However, Frederick's army was in the end completely beaten in the Battle of M?hldorf on the Ampfing Heath on September 28, 1322, where Frederick and 1300 nobles from Austria and Salzburg were captured.

    Louis held Frederick captive on Trausnitz Castle for three years, but the persistent resistance by Frederick's brother Leopold, the retreat of the King of Bohemia from his alliance and the Pope's ban induced Louis to release him in the Treaty of Trausnitz of March 13, 1325. In this agreement, Frederick finally recognized Louis as legitimate ruler and undertook to return to captivity if he would not succeed in convincing his brothers to succumb to Louis.

    As he did not manage to overcome Leopold's obstinacy, Frederick returned to Munich as a prisoner, even though the Pope had released him from his oath. Louis, who was impressed by such nobleness, renewed the old friendship with Frederick and they both agreed to rule the Empire jointly.

    Since the Pope and the electors strongly objected to this agreement, another Treaty was signed at Ulm on January 7, 1326, according to which Frederick should administer Germany as King of the Romans, while Louis should be crowned as Holy Roman Emperor in Italy.

    However, after Leopold's death in 1326, Frederick withdrew from the regency of the Empire and returned to rule only Austria. He died on January 13, 1330.
    [edit]

    Coronation as Holy Roman Emperor and conflict with the Pope
    Golden Bull of Louis IV 1326
    Enlarge
    Golden Bull of Louis IV 1326

    Despite his victory, Pope John XXII still refused to ratify Louis?s election and in 1324 he excommunicated Louis. In opposite to previous disputes between the emperor and the papacy the ban did not longer react.

    After the reconciliation with Habsburg in 1326 Louis marched to Italy and was crowned Italian king in Milan in 1327. Already in 1323 Louis had sent an army to Italy to protect Milan against Naples.

    In January 1328 he entered Rome and had himself crowned emperor by the aged senator Sciarra Colonna, called captain of the Roman people. Three months later Louis published a decree declaring "Jacque de Cahors" (Pope John XXII) deposed on grounds of heresy. He then installed a Spiritual Franciscan, Pietro Rainalducci as Antipope Nicholas V, who was deposed after Louis left Rome in early 1329. In fulfilment of an oath on his return from Italy, Louis founded Ettal Abbey on April 28, 1330. Philosophers like Michael of Cesena, Marsilius of Padua and William of Ockham were now protected at the emperor's court in Munich.

    The failure of later negotiations with the papacy led 1338 to the declaration at Rhense by six electors to the effect that election by all or the majority of the electors automatically conferred the royal title and rule over the empire, without papal confirmation.

    Louis also allied in 1337 with Edward III of England against Philip VI of France, the protector of the new Pope Benedict XII in Avignon. In 1338 Eduard III was the emperor's guest at the Imperial Diet in the Kastorkirche at Coblence. But in 1341 Louis deserted Edward and came temporary to terms with Philip.

    Imperial privileges

    Louis IV was a protector of the Teutonic Knights. In 1337 he allegedly bestowed upon the Teutonic Order a privilege to conquer Lithuania and Russia, although the Order had only petitioned for three small territories. Later he forbade the Order to stand trial before foreign courts in their territorial conflicts with foreign rulers.

    Louis concentrated his energies also on the economic development of the cities of the empire, so his name can be found in many city chronicles for the privileges he granted.


    He was the Emperor of Holy Roman Empire.

    RESEARCH NOTES:
    Emperor [Ref: Tapsell Dynasties p171, Moriarty Plantagenet p175, Paget HRHCharles p77] King of Germany [Ref: Tapsell Dynasties p199] Duke of Upper Bavaria [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p77] Count of Hainault [Ref: Tapsell Dynasties p199]

    1314: German King [Ref: Tapsell Dynasties p199]

    1314-47: Holy Roman Erperor [Ref: Tapsell Dynasties p171]

    1346-1347: Count of Hainault [Ref: Tapsell Dynasties p199]




    Father: Ludwig 'De Strenge' Von Wittlesbach b: 13 Apr 1229 in Heidelberg
    Mother: Mathlida (Mechtild) Von Habsburg b: Abt 1251 in Habsburg, Argau, Switzerland

    Marriage 1 Beatrix Von Schlesien-Glogau b: 1290 in Glogau, Schliesen, Prussia
    • Married: Abt 1308
    • Note:
      Sources for this Information:
      date: [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p77] (1309) [Ref: ES I #24], child: [Ref: ES I #24, Paget HRHCharles p257, Paget HRHCharles p77]
    • Change Date: 18 Mar 2013
    Children
    1. Has Children Stephan Von Bayern b: 1319
    2. Has Children Mechtild Von Bayern b: 21 Jun 1313 in München, Oberbayern, Bavaria
    3. Has Children Stefan Von Bavaria-Landshut b: 22 Dec 1313 in München, Oberbayern, Bavaria

    Marriage 2 Spouse Unknown
    • Married:
    • Change Date: 2 Jan 2013

    Marriage 3 Margaretha Avesnes b: 24 Jun 1310 in Le Quesnoy, Nord, France
    • Married: 25 Feb 1324
    • Note:
      Sources for this Information:
      date: [Ref: ES II #4] 25.II 1324 [Ref: ES I #24] second or later marriage of Louis [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p77], names: [Ref: Moriarty Plantagenet p176, Watney WALLOP #408], child: [Ref: CMH p1034, ES I #24, Tapsell Dynasties p199]
    • Change Date: 18 Mar 2013
    Children
    1. Has No Children Louis VI Of Upper Bavaria b: 12 May 1330
    2. Has Children Elisabeth b: 1329
    3. Has No Children William V Of Bavaria b: Abt 1332
    4. Has Children Albrecht Wittelsbach b: 25 Jul 1336 in Munchen, Oberbayern, Bavaria
    5. Has Children Albert Of Bavaria, Count Of Holland b: 1336

    Sources:
    1. Abbrev: [Plantagenet Descent]
      Title: "Plantagenet Descent" by David A. Blocher
      Author: David A. Blocher <dblocher51@yahoo.com>
      Publication: Personal Usage
      Text: "Plantagenet Descent" by David A. Blocher
      Note:
      Notification indicating people with descendancy from Geoffery Plantagenet (originator of the name, and father of King Henry II).
    2. Abbrev: [Ancestry of Meriwether Lewis (Explorer)]
      Title: Ancestry of Meriwether Lewis (Explorer)
      Text: Ancestry of Meriwether Lewis (Explorer)
      Note:
      One half of the team of 'Lewis & Clark' that mapped out the Pacific Northwest.
    3. Abbrev: Ancestor of ....
      Title: Ancestor of ....
      Text: Ancestor of
      Page: Brooke Shields
      Quality: 1
    4. Abbrev: [Ancestry of Mark Willis Ballard]
      Title: [Ancestry of Mark Willis Ballard]
      Text: Ancestry of Mark Willis Ballard
      Page: Maternal Lineage
      Quality: 3
    5. Abbrev: Descendant of.....
      Title: Descendant of.....
      Text: Descendant of......
      Page: Attila The Hun
      Quality: 1
    6. Abbrev: [Ancestry of Fred Gwynne]
      Title: Ancestry of Fred Gwynne
      Text: Ancestry of Fred Gwynne
      Page: Herman Munster of the TV Sitcom "The Munsters"
      Quality: 3
    7. Abbrev: Ancestor of ....
      Title: Ancestor of ....
      Text: Ancestor of
      Page: Fred Gwynne
      Quality: 1
    8. Abbrev: Descendant of.....
      Title: Descendant of.....
      Text: Descendant of......
      Page: Charlemagne
      Quality: 1
    9. Abbrev: [Ancestry of David A. Blocher: Paternal]
      Title: Ancestry of David A. Blocher (Paternal)
      Author: David A. Blocher (personal use) dblocher51@yahoo.com
      Text: Ancestry of David A. Blocher (Paternal)
    10. Abbrev: Gedcom File provided by
      Title: Gedcom File provided by
      Text: Gedcom File provided by
      Page: Mark Willis Ballard, September 11, 2010
      Quality: 2
    11. Abbrev: [Plantagenet Descent]
      Title: Plantagenet Descent
      Text: Plantagenet Descent
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