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  • ID: I160312
  • Name: Edward Plantagenet
  • Given Name: Edward
  • Surname: Plantagenet
  • Prefix: King
  • Suffix: II 1
  • Name: By The Grace Of God, King Of England, Lord Of Ireland And Duke Of
  • Given Name: By The Grace Of God, King Of England, Lord Of Ireland And Duke Of
  • Surname:
  • Sex: M
  • Birth: 25 Apr 1284 in Caernarvon Castle, Caernarvon, Caernarvonshire, Wales 2 3 4
  • Note:
    Sources for this Information:
    date: [Ref: CP III p171, Holloway WENTWORTH p9, John Carmi Parsons SGM 9/4/1998-105504, Paget HRHCharles p185, Paget HRHCharles p20, Paget HRHCharles p71, Watney WALLOP #203, Watney WALLOP #9, Weis AR7 #1, Weis MC #161] 1284 [Ref: Louda RoyalFamEurope #3, Louda RoyalFamEurope #65, Moriarty Plantagenet p2] 23.IV 1284 [Ref: ES II #84], place: [Ref: CP III p171, Holloway WENTWORTH p9, John Carmi Parsons SGM 9/4/1998-105504, Moriarty Plantagenet p2, Paget HRHCharles p20, Weis AR7 #1], parents: [Ref: CMH p600, CMH p892, CP II p59(b), CP III p171, ES II #84, Holloway WENTWORTH p9, John Carmi Parsons SGM 9/4/1998-105504, Louda RoyalFamEurope #3, Louda RoyalFamEurope #66, Moriarty Plantagenet p2, Paget HRHCharles p185, Paget HRHCharles p18, Paget HRHCharles p71, Wagner PedigreeProgress #3, Watney WALLOP #9, Weis AR7 #1, Weis MC #161], father: [Ref: Louda RoyalFamEurope #1, Tapsell Dynasties p176, Wagner PedigreeProgress #47]
  • Christening: 1st Prince Of Wales; 2 3 4
  • Death: 21 Sep 1327 in Berkeley Castle, Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England 2 3 4
  • Note:
    Sources for this Information:
    date: [Ref: ES II #84, Holloway WENTWORTH p9, John Carmi Parsons SGM 9/4/1998-105504, Moriarty Plantagenet p2, Paget HRHCharles p185, Paget HRHCharles p20, Paget HRHCharles p71, Redlich CharlemagneDesc p64, Watney WALLOP #203, Watney WALLOP #9, Weis AR7 #101, Weis AR7 #1, Weis MC #161] 1326 [Ref: Wagner PedigreeProgress #3] 1327 [Ref: CMH p780, CMH p892, Louda RoyalFamEurope #3, Louda RoyalFamEurope #65, Wagner PedigreeProgress #47] 1328 [Ref: CMH p600] erm 22.IX 1327 [Ref: ES II #12], place: [Ref: Burke Peerage-10 p27, John Carmi Parsons SGM 9/4/1998-105504, Paget HRHCharles p20, Watney WALLOP #9] near Gloucester [Ref: Weis AR7 #1]
    Sources with Inaccurate Information:
    date: 2 Sep 1327 [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p75]
  • Burial: 20 Dec 1327 Cathedral, Gloucester, Gloucestershire, England 5 3 4
  • Note:
    Sources for this Information:
    place: [Ref: John Carmi Parsons SGM 9/4/1998-105504] Gloucester [Ref: Burke Peerage-10 p27, Paget HRHCharles p20]
    6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 3 30 4 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55
  • Event: Alt. Birth 25 Apr 1284 Conway Castle, Caernarvon, Wales
  • Note:
    Leonor Princess Of Castile And LbEON 1 was born in 1244 in Of, Burgos, Burgos, Spain. She died on 29 Nov 1290 in , Herdeby, Lincolnshire, England. She was buried on 16 Dec 1290 in Westminster Abbey, Westminster, Middlesex, England. She married Edward I "Longshanks" King Of England on 18 Oct 1254 in , Burgos, Burgos, Spain.

    They had the following children:

    F i Isabel Princess Of England 1 was born about 1274 in Of, Windsor Castle, Berkshire, England.
    M ii Henry Prince Of England 1 was born in 1267/1268 in Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England. He died about 14 Oct 1274. He was buried on 20 Oct 1274.
    F iii Joan "of Acre" Princess of England 1 was born in 1272 in (acre), Akko, Hazafon, Israel. She died on 23 Apr 0035/1307 in , Clare, Suffolk, England. She was buried on 26 Apr 1307 in Austin Friars' Church, Clare, Suffolk, England.
    M iv Edward II King Of England 1 was born on 25 Apr 1284 in Caernarvon Castle, Caernarvon, Caernarvonshire, Wales. He died on 21 Sep 1327 in Berkeley Castle, Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England. He was buried on 20 Dec 1327 in Cathedral, Gloucester, Gloucestershire, England.
    F v Beatrice Princess Of England 1 was born in 1286 in , Toulouse, Haute-Garonne, France.
    F vi Joan Princess Of England 1 was born in 1265 in Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England. She was buried on 7 Sep 1265 in Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England.
    M vii John Prince Of England 1 was born on 10 Jul 1266 in Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England. He died on 1 Aug 1272.
    F viii Eleanor Princess Of England 1 was born in 1264 in Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England. She died in 1298 in Gent, F-Occd, Belgium. She was buried in Westminster Abbey, Westminster, Middlesex, England.
    F ix Juliana Or Katherine Princess Of England 1 was born in 1271 in , Akko, Hazafon, Israel. She died in 1271 in , Akko, Hazafon, Israel.
    M x Alphonso Prince Of England 1 was born on 24 Nov 1273 in , Bayonne, Basses-Pyrenees, France. He died on 19 Aug 1284.
    F xi Margaret Princess Of England 1 was born on 11 Sep 1275 in Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England. She died in 1318.
    F xii Berengaria Princess Of England 1 was born in 1276 in , Kennington, Berkshire, England. She died about 1277/1279.
    F xiii Mary Princess Of England 1 was born on 11 Mar 1278 in Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England. She died before 22 Jul 1232 in Unmarried.
    F xiv Alice Princess Of England 1 was born on 12 Mar 1279 in Palace, Woodstock, Oxfordshire, England. She died in 1291 in Unmarried.
    F xv Elizabeth Princess Of England
    F xvi Blanche Princess Of England 1 was born in 1290 in Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England.

    source page:
    http://www.geocities.com/kevingecowets/pafg71.htm#4375

    added:
    03/26/05
    56 28 3 4
  • Event: Alt. Death 7 Jul 1327 Gloucester, England 5 3 4
  • Event: Alt. Death 21 Sep 1327 Berkeley Castle, Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England 28 3 4
  • Event: Alt. Burial Gloucester, England 5 3 4
  • Event: Alt. Burial 21 Dec 1327 St. Peters Monastery, Gloucester, England 57 28 3 4
  • Occupation: King England 1307-1327 58 3 4
  • Occupation: Prince of Wales 1301 England 59 28 3 4
  • Occupation: King From 1307 to 1327 England 60 28 3 4
  • Event: Leeds Castle Owned From 1321 to 1327 Maidstone, Kent, England 61 28 3 4
  • Event: No Name Bet 7 Jul 1307 and 20 Jan 1327 1 62
  • Event: Coronation 25 Feb 1308 62
  • Event: Plantagenet House 62
  • _UID: 294DD5AD2ADDB24AB6A746FAEAAB1FBF0BF4
  • Change Date: 11 Mar 2013 at 00:54
  • Note:
    He lacked the royal dignity of his father and failed miserably as King. He inherited his father's war with Scotland and displayed his ineptitude as a soldier. Disgruntled Barons, already wary of Edward as Prince of Wales, sought to check his power from the beginning of his reign. He raised the ire of the nobility by lavishing money and other rewards upon his male favorites. Such extreme unpopularity would eventually cost Edward his life.

    Edward I's dream of a unified British nation quickly disintegrated under his weak son. Baronial rebellion opened the way for Robert The Bruce to reconquer much of Scotland. In 1314, Bruce defeated English forces at the battle of Bannockburn and ensured Scottish independence until the union of England and Scotland in 1707. Bruce also incited rebellion in Ireland and reduced English influence to the confines of the Pale.

    Edward's preference for surrounding himself with outsiders harkened back to the troubled reign of Henry III. The most notable was Piers Gaveston, a young Gascon exiled by King Edward I for his undue influence on the Prince of Wales and, most likely, the king's homosexual lover. The arrogant and licentious Gaveston wielded considerable power after being recalled by Edward. The magnates, alienated by the relationship, rallied in opposition behind the King's cousin, Thomas, Earl of Lancaster; the Parliaments of 1310 and 1311 imposed restrictions on Edward's power and exiled Gaveston. The barons revolted in 1312 and Gaveston was murdered - full rebellion was avoided only by Edward's acceptance of further restrictions. Although Lancaster shared the responsibilities of governing with Edward, the king came under the influence of yet another despicable favorite, Hugh Dispenser. In 1322, Edward showed a rare display of resolve and gathered an army to meet Lancaster at the Battle of Boroughbridge in Yorkshire. Edward prevailed and executed Lancaster. He and Dispenser ruled the government but again acquired many enemies - 28 knights and barons were executed for rebelling and many exiled.

    Edward sent his queen, Isabella, to negotiate with her brother, French King Charles IV, regarding affairs in Gascony. She fell into an open romance with Roger Mortimer, one of Edward's disaffected Barons, and persuaded Edward to send their young son to France. The rebellious couple invaded England in 1326 and imprisoned Edward. The King was deposed in 1327, replaced by his son, Edward III, and murdered in September at Berkeley Castle.

    Sir Richard Baker, in reference to Edward I in A Chronicle of the Kings of England, makes a strong indictment against Edward II: "His great unfortunateness was in his greatest blessing; for of four sons which he had by his Queen Eleanor, three of them died in his own lifetime, who were worthy to have outlived him; and the fourth outlived him, who was worthy never to have been born."

    BIOGRAPHY: Edward was the first heir apparent in English history to be pr oclaimed, Prince of Wales. He was a Plantagenet King of England (the Hous e of Anjou) whose incompetence and distaste for government finally led t o his deposition and murder. In January 1327, Parliament forced Edward t o resign and proclaimed the Prince of Wales king as Edward III. On Septem ber 21 of that year Edward II was murdered by his captors at Berkeley Cas tle, Gloucestershire.
    Edward II lacked the royal dignity of his father and failed miserably a s king. He inherited his father's war with Scotland and displayed his ine ptitude as a soldier. Disgruntled barons, already wary of Edward as Princ e of Wales, sought to check his power from the beginning of his reign. H e raised the ire of the nobility by lavishing money and other rewards upo n his male favorites. Such extreme unpopularity would eventually cost Edw ard his life.

    BIOGRAPHY: Edward I's dream of a unified British nation quickly disintegr ated under his weak son. Baronial rebellion opened the way for Robert Bru ce to reconquer much of Scotland. In 1314, Bruce defeated English force s at the battle of Bannockburn and ensured Scottish independence until th e union of England and Scotland in 1707. Bruce also incited rebellion i n Ireland and reduced English influence to the confines of the Pale.
    Edward's preference for surrounding himself with outsiders harkened bac k to the troubled reign of Henry III. The most notable was Piers Gaveston , a young Gascon exiled by Edward I for his undue influence on the Princ e of Wales and, most likely, the king's homosexual lover. The arrogant an d licentious Gaveston wielded considerable power after being recalled b y Edward. The magnates, alienated by the relationship, rallied in opposit ion behind the king's cousin, Thomas, Earl of Lancaster; the Parliament s of 1310 and 1311 imposed restrictions on Edward's power and exiled Gave ston. The barons revolted in 1312 and Gaveston was murdered - full rebell ion was avoided only by Edward's acceptance of further restrictions. Alth ough Lancaster shared the responsibilities of governing with Edward, th e king came under the influence of yet another despicable favorite, Hug h Dispenser. In 1322, Edward showed a rare display of resolve and gathere d an army to meet Lancaster at the Battle of Boroughbridge in Yorkshire . Edward prevailed and executed Lancaster. He and Dispenser ruled the gov ernment but again acquired many enemies - 28 knights and barons were exec uted for rebelling and many exiled .
    Edward sent his queen, Isabella, to negotiate with her brother, French ki ng Charles IV, regarding affairs in Gascony. She fell into an open romanc e with Roger Mortimer, one of Edward's disaffected barons, and persuade d Edward to send their young son to France. The rebellious couple invade d England in 1326 and imprisoned Edward. The king was deposed in 1327, re placed by his son, Edward III, and murdered in September at Berkeley cast le.

    BIOGRAPHY: Sir Richard Baker, in reference to Edward I in A Chronicle o f the Kings of England, makes a strong indictment against Edward II: "Hi s great unfortunateness was in his greatest blessing; for of four sons wh ich he had by his Queen Eleanor, three of them died in his own lifetime , who were worthy to have outlived him; and the fourth outlived him, wh o was worthy never to have been born."
    ---------------

    !Fourth son of King Edward I and Eleanor of Castile. The deaths of his older brothers made the infant prince heir to the throne. In 1301 he was proclaimed Prince of Wales, the first to hold the title. His incompentence and distaste for government finally led to his deposition and murder. [Funk & Wagnalls]

    !King of England, 1307-1327. [Magna Charta Sureties]

    !Unlike his father, Edward II was a weak king with little ability. He carried on the war against Scotland, but was so badly defeated at the Battle of Bannockburn (1314) that Scottish independence for the rest of the Middle Ages was assured. Worse yet, he was in constant trouble with the barons. They had objected to his father's policy of taking away their influence in the government and tried to remedy the situation in 1311. Against Edward II they had more success, and a conspiracy led by the queen and her lover, Roger Mortimer, finally forced the king to abdicate in favor of his son, Edward III (1327). Shortly afterward Edward II was murdered. [Outline History of Mankind]

    !4th son of Queen Eleanor and King Edward. [Chronicle of the Royal Family, p. 62]

    !Lincoln, 7 Feb 1301 -- Made Prince of Wales, making him the first English royal officially to be called a prince. Was also Earl of Chester. He led a successful assault on Caerlaverock Castle in Galloway in 1300. Not close to his father; his mother died when he was 6. He is said to find solace in close and emotional male friendships. [Chronicle of the Royal Family, p. 66]

    !England, 8 July 1307 -- Edward of Caernarfon accedes to the English throne.
    Westminster, 25 Feb 1308 -- Edward is crowned king of England.
    Bristol, 25 Jun 1308 -- Edward send his exiled favorite, Piers Gaveston, the newly-appointed Earl of Cornwall, to Ireland as lieutenant.
    Chester, 27 Jun 1309 -- Despite strong opposition, Gaveston returns from Ireland and is greeted by King Edward.
    Stamford, July 1309 -- Edward agrees to the demands of the barons.
    Westminster, 14 Oct 1314 -- Following the assassination of Gaveston two years earlier, Edward and his barons are formally reconciled.
    !London, 24 Jan 1327 -- King Edward abdicates his throne in favor of his 14-year-old son, Edward. [Chronicle of the Royal Family, p. 68]

    During his brief period as prince, Edward of Caernarfon won the affection of the Welsh. The attitude of the Welsh towards Edward II was an important factor in his unhappy reign (1307-27). Those years were a period of almost continuous conflict between the king and his barons, almost all of whom had territories in the March. [A History of Wales, p. 180]

    Clearly, Isabella was not a royal to be trifled with. While her role in the sadistic manner of Edward II's assassination at Berkeley Castle in 1327 -- by means of red hot irons plunged into his bowels -- cannot be proved, there is no doubt that the queen, as his gaoler, must take ultimate responsibility. [Realm No. 62, May/June, p. 25]

    King of England from 1307-1327.

    Founded Oriel College, Oxford, 1326. [The Plantagenet Ancestry, p. ii]

    Edward II was b. 1284; m. Isabella of France who bore him four children: Edward, John, Eleanor and Joanna. King of England, he came to the throne in 1307 succeeding his father Edward I. His attachment to favourites such as Piers Gaveston brought violent opposition from the barons. He lost control of Scotland when Robert Bruce defeated his army at Bannockburn in 1314. Edward's queen, Isabella, together with her lover, Roger Mortimer, staged a rebellion which overthrew the king in 1326. In 1327 they forced Edward to renounce the throne in favour of his son, Edward III. He was then tortured adn brutally murdered in Berkeley Castle. Edward was made Prince of Wales in 1301, the first heir to the English throne to be given the title. [Edward II, 1307-1327<http://www.camelotintl.com/heritage/edwii.html]

    The most important influence on him was probably that of his 'master', the Gascon knight Guy Ferre, who had been steward to Eleanor of Provence. All that Edward excelled in was horsemanship, and perhaps also those mechanical arts, such as hedging, ditching and rowing, which he was to be so criticized for practising when he came to the throne. Edward I was to quarrel bitterly with his son at the end of his reign, even on one occasion physically assaulting him and tearing out his hair, but there are no signs that the father took against his son in childhood. It may well be that much of Edward II's personal inadequacy was the result of his relationship with his formidable father, who must have been a hard man to live up to. [Edward I, p. 127]


    Edward II was one of the most disastrous failures in the history of kingship. He was a handsome, healthy boy, not over-addicted to his books (though on occasion he would borrow them from monastic libraries, and fail to return them). He was a capable horseman, but not at al interested in knightly pastimes. He followed his father to the Scottish wars on a number of occasions, and performed moderately well, but he was to prove himself a rash and incapable commander-in-chief later on.
    He was fond of music, and once sent his Welsh harper, Richard the Rhymer, to Shrewsbury Abbey to learn to play a strange instrument called a crwth, a forerunner of the violin. He liked swimming and rowing, gambling and fooling about with simple folk. He fancied himself practical with his hands, designing a ship for his 12-year-old bride from France; at moments of stress he reverted to estate management (a trait he shared with Gladstone, the Kaiser, and Winston Churchill), digging his own ditches and making fences. He had a nice sense of humor. [Who's Who in the Middle Ages, p. 74-77]

    In 1303, Edward II asked the abbot of Cluny to appoint Arnold, a Cluniac and a royal chaplain, to the first available priorate in England. Castle Acre was vacant, but the prior of Lewes appointed the prior of Clifford, a dependency of Lewes in Herefordshire. The royal displeasure was only mollified by appointing Arnold to the priorate of Clifford. [Castle Acre Castle and Priory, p. 45]

    The Prince of Wales, as since 1301 the heir to the English throne had been styled, caused his father grief and perplexity by his undesirable infatuation for Piers Gaveston. Gaveston was banished from the kingdom in the last year of Edward I's reign due to the testimony of Walter de Langeton to the King. The Prince hated Langton. [The Seven Edwards of England, p. 42]

    After the failure of negotiations with the daughters of Flanders, a French princess was found as bride for Edward. The betrothal was in 1303, when young Edward was 19 and the princess still a child; the wedding was to take place as sson as Isabel reached marriageable age. Edward had already been created Prince of Wales, he enjoyed his inheritance of Ponthieu, and in 1306 his father granted him the duchy of Aquitaine, so that his appanage was a substantial one.
    Young Edward had moved out into the light; he was in his father's company in the train of battle. Then disapproval grew into disgust--the finger of hostility was pointed at the nauseous infatuation of the Prince of Wales for the Gascon favourite. It was at the best inconsistent with the dignity of royal isolation; at the worst--there were not wanting tongues, dipped in unnecessary venom very possibly, to make their commentary. [The Seven Edwards of England, p. 49]

    Edward II was the first to use the chair with the Stone of Scone for his coronation. The much hated and incompetent Piers Gaveston was appointed master of ceremonies for the coronation. But the nobles refused to attend the coronation unless Gaveston was banished from court. Edward smoothed things over, but the Earl of Lancaster had to be physically restrained from stabbing Gaveston at the Abbey when it was discovered he was to carry the sacred crown of St Edward. More uproar was to follow when the banquet arrived late, badly cookes, and virtually inedible. ["Crowning Moments" by Elaine Brooksbank, REALM June 2002, p. 67]
    Edward II (1284-1327), Plantagenet king of England (1307-1327), whose incompetence and distaste for government finally led to his deposition and murder.

    Edward was born on April 25, 1284, at Caernarfon (Caernarvon), Wales, the fourth son of King Edward I and his first wife, Eleanor of Castile. The deaths of his older brothers made the infant prince heir to the throne; in 1301 he was proclaimed Prince of Wales, the first heir apparent in English history to bear that title. The prince was idle and frivolous, with no liking for military campaigning or affairs of state. Believing that the prince's close friend Piers Gaveston, a Gascon knight, was a bad influence on the prince, Edward I banished Gaveston. On his father's death, however, Edward II recalled his favorite. Gaveston incurred the opposition of the powerful English barony. The nobles were particularly angered in 1308, when Edward made Gaveston regent for the period of the king's absence in France, where he went to marry Isabella, daughter of King Philip IV. In 1311 the barons, led by Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, forced the king to appoint from among them a committee of 21 nobles and prelates, called the lords ordainers. They proclaimed a series of ordinances that transferred the ruling power to themselves and excluded the commons and lower clergy from Parliament. After they had twice forced the king to banish Gaveston, and the king had each time recalled him, the barons finally had the king's favorite kidnapped and executed.

    In the meantime, Robert Bruce had almost completed his reconquest of Scotland, which he had begun shortly after 1305. In 1314 Edward II and his barons raised an army of some 100,000 men with which to crush Bruce, but in the attempt to lift the siege of Stirling they were decisively defeated (see Bannockburn, Battle of). For the following eight years the Earl of Lancaster virtually ruled the kingdom. In 1322, however, with the advice and help of two new royal favorites, the baron Hugh le Despenser, and his son, also Hugh le Despenser, Edward defeated Lancaster in battle and had him executed. The le Despensers thereupon became de facto rulers of England. They summoned a Parliament in which the commons were included and which repealed the ordinances of 1311 on the ground that they had been passed by the barons only. The repeal was a great step forward in English constitutional development, for it meant that thenceforth no law passed by Parliament was valid unless the House of Commons approved it.

    Edward again futilely invaded Scotland in 1322, and in 1323 signed a 13-year truce with Bruce. In 1325 Queen Isabella accompanied the Prince of Wales to France, where, in accordance with feudal custom, he did homage to king Charles IV for the fief of Aquitaine. Isabella, who desired to depose the le Despensers, allied herself with some barons who had been exiled by Edward. In 1326, with their leader, Roger de Mortimer, Isabella raised an army and invaded England. Edward and his favorites fled, but his wife's army pursued and executed the le Despensers and imprisoned Edward. In January 1327, Parliament forced Edward to resign and proclaimed the Prince of Wales king as Edward III. On September 21 of that year Edward II was murdered by his captors at Berkeley Castle, Gloucestershire.

    HOW TO CITE THIS ARTICLE
    "Edward II," Microsoft? Encarta? Online Encyclopedia 2000
    http://encarta.msn.com 1997-2000 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

    [browne.ged]

    [large-G675.FTW]

    Reigned 1307-1327 deposed and murdered. 1st Prince of Wales His reign was troubled by extravagances, his militarist disasters in Scotland notably at Bannockburn (1314) and unpopularity of his favourite peers Piers de Gaveston who died in 1312 and Hugh le Despencer 1262-1326.

    REF: British Monarchy Official Website: Edward II (reigned 1307-27) had few of the qualities which made a successful medieval king. He surrounded himself with favourites, and the barons, feeling excluded from power, rebelled. Throughout his reign different baronial groups struggled to gain power and control the King. The nobles' Ordinances of 1311, which attempted to limit royal control of finance and appointments, were ignored by Edward. Large debts (many inherited) and the Scots' victory at Bannockburn made Edward more unpopular. Finally, in 1326, Edward's wife, Isabelle of France, led an invasion
    against her husband. In 1327 Edward was made to renounce the throne in favour of his son, Edward, and was later murdered at Berkeley Castle
    Acceded 1307-1327.

    Edward II
    Edward II (reigned 1307-27) had few of the qualities that made a successful medieval king. Edward surrounded himself with favourites (the best known being a Gascon, Piers Gaveston), and the barons, feeling excluded from power, rebelled. Throughout his reign, different baronial groups struggled to gain power and control the King. The nobles' ordinances of 1311, which attempted to limit royal control of finance and appointments, were counteracted by Edward. Large debts (many inherited) and the Scots' victory at Bannockburn by Robert the Bruce in 1314 made Edward more unpopular.
    Edward's victory in a civil war (1321-2) and such measures as the 1326 ordinance (a protectionist measure which set up compulsory markets or staples in 14 English, Welsh and Irish towns for the wool trade) did not lead to any compromise between the King and the nobles. Finally, in 1326, Edward's wife, Isabella of France, led an invasion against her husband. In 1327 Edward was made to renounce the throne in favour of his son Edward (the first time that an anointed king of England had been dethroned since Ethelred in 1013). Edward II was later murdered at Berkeley Castle.
    [large-G675.FTW]

    Reigned 1307-1327 deposed and murdered. 1st Prince of Wales His reign was troubled by extravagances, his militarist disasters in Scotland notably at Bannockburn (1314) and unpopularity of his favourite peers Piers de Gaveston who died in 1312 and Hugh le Despencer 1262-1326.

    REF: British Monarchy Official Website: Edward II (reigned 1307-27) had few of the qualities which made a successful medieval king. He surrounded himself with favourites, and the barons, feeling excluded from power, rebelled. Throughout his reign different baronial groups struggled to gain power and control the King. The nobles' Ordinances of 1311, which attempted to limit royal control of finance and appointments, were ignored by Edward. Large debts (many inherited) and the Scots' victory at Bannockburn made Edward more unpopular. Finally, in 1326, Edward's wife, Isabelle of France, led an invasion
    against her husband. In 1327 Edward was made to renounce the throne in favour of his son, Edward, and was later murdered at Berkeley Castle
    REFN: NR4988
    Edward II

    Edward II (1284-1327), Plantagenet king of England (1307-1327), whose incompetence and distaste for government finally led to his deposition and murder.

    Edward was born on April 25, 1284, at Caernarfon (Caernarvon), Wales, the fourth son of King Edward I and his first wife, Eleanor of Castile. The deaths of his older brothers made the infant prince heir to the throne; in 1301 he was proclaimed Prince of Wales, the first heir apparent in English history to bear that title. The prince was idle and frivolous, with no liking for military campaigning or affairs of state. Believing that the prince's close friend Piers Gaveston, a Gascon knight, was a bad influence on the prince, Edward I banished Gaveston. On his father's death, however, Edward II recalled his favorite. Gaveston incurred the opposition of the powerful English barony. The nobles were particularly angered in 1308, when Edward made Gaveston regent for the period of the king's absence in France, where he went to marry Isabella, daughter of King Philip IV. In 1311 the barons, led by Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, forced the king to appoint from among them a committee of 21 nobles and prelates, called the lords ordainers. They proclaimed a series of ordinances that transferred the ruling power to themselves and excluded the commons and lower clergy from Parliament. After they had twice forced the king to banish Gaveston, and the king had each time recalled him, the barons finally had the king's favorite kidnapped and executed.

    In the meantime, Robert Bruce had almost completed his reconquest of Scotland, which he had begun shortly after 1305. In 1314 Edward II and his barons raised an army of some 100,000 men with which to crush Bruce, but in the attempt to lift the siege of Stirling they were decisively defeated (see Bannockburn, Battle of). For the following eight years the Earl of Lancaster virtually ruled the kingdom. In 1322, however, with the advice and help of two new royal favorites, the baron Hugh le Despenser, and his son, also Hugh le Despenser, Edward defeated Lancaster in battle and had him executed. The le Despensers thereupon became de facto rulers of England. They summoned a Parliament in which the commons were included and which repealed the ordinances of 1311 on the ground that they had been passed by the barons only. The repeal was a great step forward in English constitutional development, for it meant that thenceforth no law passed by Parliament was valid unless the House of Commons approved it.

    Edward again futilely invaded Scotland in 1322, and in 1323 signed a 13-year truce with Bruce. In 1325 Queen Isabella accompanied the Prince of Wales to France, where, in accordance with feudal custom, he did homage to king Charles IV for the fief of Aquitaine. Isabella, who desired to depose the le Despensers, allied herself with some barons who had been exiled by Edward. In 1326, with their leader, Roger de Mortimer, Isabella raised an army and invaded England. Edward and his favorites fled, but his wife's army pursued and executed the le Despensers and imprisoned Edward. In January 1327, Parliament forced Edward to resign and proclaimed the Prince of Wales king as Edward III. On September 21 of that year Edward II was murdered by his captors at Berkeley Castle, Gloucestershire.

    HOW TO CITE THIS ARTICLE
    "Edward II," Microsoft? Encarta? Online Encyclopedia 2000
    http://encarta.msn.com 1997-2000 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

    [browne.ged]

    [large-G675.FTW]

    Reigned 1307-1327 deposed and murdered. 1st Prince of Wales His reign was troubled by extravagances, his militarist disasters in Scotland notably at Bannockburn (1314) and unpopularity of his favourite peers Piers de Gaveston who died in 1312 and Hugh le Despencer 1262-1326.

    REF: British Monarchy Official Website: Edward II (reigned 1307-27) had few of the qualities which made a successful medieval king. He surrounded himself with favourites, and the barons, feeling excluded from power, rebelled. Throughout his reign different baronial groups struggled to gain power and control the King. The nobles' Ordinances of 1311, which attempted to limit royal control of finance and appointments, were ignored by Edward. Large debts (many inherited) and the Scots' victory at Bannockburn made Edward more unpopular. Finally, in 1326, Edward's wife, Isabelle of France, led an invasion
    against her husband. In 1327 Edward was made to renounce the throne in favour of his son, Edward, and was later murdered at Berkeley Castle
    Acceded 1307-1327.

    Edward II
    Edward II (reigned 1307-27) had few of the qualities that made a successful medieval king. Edward surrounded himself with favourites (the best known being a Gascon, Piers Gaveston), and the barons, feeling excluded from power, rebelled. Throughout his reign, different baronial groups struggled to gain power and control the King. The nobles' ordinances of 1311, which attempted to limit royal control of finance and appointments, were counteracted by Edward. Large debts (many inherited) and the Scots' victory at Bannockburn by Robert the Bruce in 1314 made Edward more unpopular.
    Edward's victory in a civil war (1321-2) and such measures as the 1326 ordinance (a protectionist measure which set up compulsory markets or staples in 14 English, Welsh and Irish towns for the wool trade) did not lead to any compromise between the King and the nobles. Finally, in 1326, Edward's wife, Isabella of France, led an invasion against her husband. In 1327 Edward was made to renounce the throne in favour of his son Edward (the first time that an anointed king of England had been dethroned since Ethelred in 1013). Edward II was later murdered at Berkeley Castle.
    [large-G675.FTW]

    Reigned 1307-1327 deposed and murdered. 1st Prince of Wales His reign was troubled by extravagances, his militarist disasters in Scotland notably at Bannockburn (1314) and unpopularity of his favourite peers Piers de Gaveston who died in 1312 and Hugh le Despencer 1262-1326.

    REF: British Monarchy Official Website: Edward II (reigned 1307-27) had few of the qualities which made a successful medieval king. He surrounded himself with favourites, and the barons, feeling excluded from power, rebelled. Throughout his reign different baronial groups struggled to gain power and control the King. The nobles' Ordinances of 1311, which attempted to limit royal control of finance and appointments, were ignored by Edward. Large debts (many inherited) and the Scots' victory at Bannockburn made Edward more unpopular. Finally, in 1326, Edward's wife, Isabelle of France, led an invasion
    against her husband. In 1327 Edward was made to renounce the throne in favour of his son, Edward, and was later murdered at Berkeley Castle
    ALIA: CONC Aquitaine
    CREATED EARL OF CHESTER AND 1ST PRINCE OF WALES AT NETTLEHAM, NEAR LINCOLN, 2/7/1301; "OF CAERNARVON"; ACCEDED 7/8/1307; RULED FROM 1307-1327; INITIALLY BETROTHED TO ISOBEL, ELDEST DAUGHTER OF KING PEDRO OF ARAGON, BUT MARRIAGE NEVER CAME ABOUT; SECONDLY BETROTHED TO MARGARET ("MAID OF NORWAY"), BUT SHE DROWNED ON HER WAY TO ENGLAND FOR THE MARRIAGE; THIRDLY BETROTHED TO PHILLIPA, DAUGHTER OF GUY DE DAMPIERRE (COUNT OF FLANDERS), BUT SHE DIED 1297; DEPOSED/ ABDICATED 1/20/1327 BY HIS QUEEN, ISABELLA; HE WAS KEPT PRISONER UNTIL PRESUMABLY MURDERED IN BERKELEY CASTLE - A CONTEMPORARY WRITER WHO KNEW SOMEONE AT THE CASTLE CLAIMED HE WAS "IGNOMINIOUSLY SLAIN WITH A RED-HOT SPIT THRUST INTO HIS ANUS" (EVICERATION WITH A HOT IRON) [CROWNED WESTMINSTER]
    reigned 1307-1327 deposed and murdered a hot poker up the bowellsReigned 1307-1327 deposed and murdered. First prince of Wales. His reign was troubled by extravagances, his militarist disasters in Scotland notably at Bannockburn (1314) and unpopularity of his favorite peers Gaveston who died in 1312 and Hugh Le Despencer 1262- 1326. He was deposed on 21 Jan 1327, and murdered by
    a red hot poker in his bowels. Invested as the first Prince of Wales 1301.
    BIBLIOGRAPHY:
    Burke, Sir John Bernard, Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Peerage and Baronetage, The Privy Council, Knghtage and Companionage. 72nd edition. London: Harrison & Sons, 1910.

    Cokayne, George Edward, Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom, extant, extinct, or dormant. Gloucester: A Sutton, 1982.

    Holloway, Naomi D, The Genealogy of Mary Wentworth, Who Became the Wife of William Brewster, Revised Edition, October 1969. LDS Film#1738313 item#5

    Louda, Jiri, and Michael MacLagan, Heraldry of The Royal Families of Europe. New York: Clarkson Potter, 1981. Morris County Library 929.6094.

    Moriarty, G Andrews, Plantagenet Ancestry of King Edward III And Queen Philippa. Salt Lake: Mormon Pioneer Genealogical Society, 1985. LDS Film#0441438. nypl#ARF-86-2555.

    Paget, Gerald, The Lineage and Ancestry of H.R.H. Prince Charles, Prince of Wales. London: Charles Skilton Ltd, 1977. Nypl ARF+ 78-835.

    Parsons, John Carmi, Children of Eleanor of Castile. Posting to soc.genealogy.medieval (email list GEN-MEDIEVAL) on 9/4/1998-105504. Subject: Eleanor of Castile--II. Available at http://archiver.rootsweb.com/th/read/1998-09/0904931704. Author address: jparsons at chass dot utoronto dot ca.

    Previte-Orton, C. W., The Shorter Cambridge Medieval History, Cambridge: University Press, 1952. Chatham 940.1PRE.

    Redlich, Marcellus Donald R Von, Pedigrees of Some of the Emperor Charlemagne's Descendants. Order of the Crown of Charlemagne, 1941.

    Schwennicke, Detlev, ed., Europaische Stammtafeln: Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der europaischen Staaten, New Series. II: Die Ausserdeutschen Staaten Die Regierenden Hauser der Ubrigen Staaten Europas. Marburg: Verlag von J. A. Stargardt, 1984.

    Schwennicke, Detlev, ed., Europaische Stammtafeln: Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der europaischen Staaten, New Series. XVIII: Zwischen Maas und Rhein. Frankfurt am Main: Vittorio Klostermann, 1998.

    Tapsell, R. F., Monarchs, Rulers, Dynasties and Kingdoms of the World. New York: Facts on File Publications, 1983.

    Wagner, Anthony, Pedigree and Progress, Essays in the Genealogical Interpretation of History, London, Philmore, 1975. Rutgers Alex CS4.W33.

    Watney, Vernon James, The Wallop Family and their Ancestry, Oxford:John Johnson, 1928. LDS Film#1696491 items 6-9.

    Weis, Frederick L, Magna Charta Sureties 1215: The Barons Named in the Magna Charta and Some of Their Descendants. 4th Ed. Baltimore: Gen Pub Co, 1991.

    Weis, Frederick Lewis, Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, David Faris, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists who came to America before 1700, 7th Edition, Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co, 1992.
    RESEARCH NOTES:
    King of England [Ref: Weis AR7 #1, Weis MC #161, Tapsell Dynasties p176, Holloway WENTWORTH p9, Paget HRHCharles p71] 1st Earl of Chester, of Earldom cr 1301 [Ref: CP III p171]

    1307-1327: King of England [Ref: Weis AR7 #1, Weis MC #161, Tapsell Dynasties p176, Holloway WENTWORTH p9]

    crowned Feb 23 1307/8 [Ref: Burke Peerage-10 p27] Feb 25 1308 [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p20]

    deposed by Parliament Jan 7 1327; murdered at Berkeley Castle Sep 21 following [Ref: Burke Peerage-10 p27]

    deposed Jan 7, abdicated Jan 20 1327 [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p20]
    62



    Father: Edward I Plantagenet b: 17 Jun 1239 in Westminster, London, Middlesex, England c: 22 Jun 1239 in Westminster, London, Middlesex, England
    Mother: Eleanor "Leonor" Castile, De Berenger b: 1244 in Burgos, Castile, Spain

    Marriage 1 Spouse Unknown
    • Married: 22 Jan 1307 in France
    • Event: Alt. Marriage 25 Jan 1308 in Boulogne, Pas-DE-Calais, Nord-Pas-DE-Calais, France
    • Event: Alt. Marriage 22 Jan 1308 in Boulogne, Pas-DE-Calais, Nord-Pas-DE-Calais, France
    • Change Date: 11 Mar 2013
    Children
    1. Has No Children Adam Plantagenet b: Abt 1310 in England

    Marriage 2 Isabella "The Fair" De Capet (Plantagenet) b: 1292 in Paris, Louvre, Seine, France
    • Married: 25 Jan 1308 in Boulogne, Pas-DE-Calais, France 2 3 4
    • Note:
      _FREL Natural
      _MREL Natural
      _FREL Natural
      _MREL Natural
      _FREL Natural
      _MREL Natural
      _FREL Natural
      _MREL Natural
      _FREL Natural
      _MREL Natural
    • Event: Alt. Marriage 25 Jan 1308 in Boulogne, Pas-DE-Calais, France
    • Note:
      # ID: I577685887
      # Name: Edward II PLANTAGENET
      # Given Name: Edward II
      # Surname: PLANTAGENET
      # Sex: M
      # Birth: 25 Apr 1284 in Caernarvon Castle, Caernarvon, Caernarvonshire, Wales
      # Death: 21 Sep 1327 in Berkeley Castle, England
      # Change Date: 10 May 2004
      # Note: King of England. Married: 22-Jan-1307/08 in Boulogne, Pas-de-Calais, France.Murdered. Brother to Joan of Arc.

      Father: Edward I PLANTAGENET b: 7 Oct 1239 in Westminster, London, England
      Mother: Elenora DE CASTILLA b: Abt. 1240 in Burgos, Burgos, Spain

      Marriage 1 Isabelle CAPET b: Abt. 1292 in Paris, Seine, France

      * Note: _UIDE36A2E7A9E78F446B679BD83D61D70586F8D

      Children

      1. Edward III PLANTAGENET b: 13 Nov 1312 in Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England

      source page:
      http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:2951323&id=I577685887

      added:
      03/24/05
      28 3 4
    • Change Date: 11 Mar 2013
    Children
    1. Has Children Edward Plantagenet b: 13 Nov 1312 in Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England c: 20 Nov 1312 in King Of England 1327-1377;
    2. Has No Children John Plantagenet b: 15 Aug 1316 in Eltham Palace, Kent, England
    3. Has No Children Eleanor Plantagenet b: 18 Jun 1318 in Woodstock Palace, Kent, England
    4. Has No Children Adam Plantagenet b: Abt 1310
    5. Has No Children Joan Plantagenet b: 5 Jul 1321 in Tower Of London, London, Middlesex, England

    Sources:
    1. Abbrev: Online Resource
      Title: Online Resource
      Note:
      Online Resource.
      Page: http://www.geocities.com/bpstratton/gedcom/d0005/g0000069.html#I1515
      Quality: 3
    2. Abbrev: tuttle-royal.FTW
      Title: tuttle-royal.FTW
    3. Abbrev: GEDCOM file imported on 12 Jan 2008
      Title: GEDCOM file. Created on Jan 12, 2008. Imported on 12 Jan 2008.
    4. Abbrev: GEDCOM file imported on 23 Sep 2009
      Title: GEDCOM file submitted by Cathy Ann Abernathy, Rootsweb.com / weavercat@gmail.com. Created on 17 AUG 2009. Imported on 23 Sep 2009.
    5. Abbrev: bushdev.FTW
      Title: bushdev.FTW
    6. Abbrev: The Plantagenet Encyclopedia
      Title: Hallam, Elizabeth, General Editor, <i>The Plantagenet Encyclopedia</i> (Cresent Books, New York, 1996)
      Repository:
        Name: Cheryl Varner Library
        Gray Court, SC

      Page: p. 67-68
      Quality: 3
    7. Abbrev: [Plantagenet Descent]
      Title: "Plantagenet Descent" by David A. Blocher
      Author: David A. Blocher <dblocher51@yahoo.com>
      Publication: Personal Usage
      Text: "Plantagenet Descent" by David A. Blocher
      Note:
      Notification indicating people with descendancy from Geoffery Plantagenet (originator of the name, and father of King Henry II).
    8. Abbrev: Funk & Wagnalls New Encyclopedia
      Title: Bram, Leon L. V.P. and Ed. Dir.; Dickey, Norma H. Editor-in-Chief, <i>Funk & Wagnalls New Encyclopedia</i> (Funk & Wagnalls, Inc., 1986)
      Repository:
        Name: Cheryl Varner Library
        Gray Court, SC
    9. Abbrev: Ancestor of ....
      Title: Ancestor of ....
      Text: Ancestor of
      Page: Brooke Shields
      Quality: 1
    10. Abbrev: The Magna Charta Sureties, 1215, Fourth Edition
      Title: Weis, Frederick Lewis, Th.D., <i>The Magna Charta Sureties, 1215, Fourth Edition</i> (Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., Baltimore, 1991)
      Repository:
        Name: Cheryl Varner Library
        Gray Court, SC
    11. Abbrev: Ancestor of ....
      Title: Ancestor of ....
      Text: Ancestor of
      Page: Jennifer Love Hewitt
      Quality: 1
    12. Abbrev: An Illustrated Outline History of Mankind
      Title: Cole, Fay-Cooper; Warren, Harris Gaylord, editors, <i>An Illustrated Outline History of Mankind</i> (Consolidated Baook Publishers, Chicago, 1965)
      Repository:
        Name: Cheryl Varner Library
        Gray Court, SC
    13. Abbrev: Ancestor of ....
      Title: Ancestor of ....
      Text: Ancestor of
      Page: Clint Eastwood
      Quality: 1
    14. Abbrev: Chronicle of the Royal Family
      Title: Mercer, Derrik, ed., <i>Chronicle of the Royal Family</i> (Jacques Legrand, London, 1991)
      Repository:
        Name: Cheryl Varner Library
        Gray Court, SC

      Page: p. 62, 66, 68
      Quality: 3
    15. Abbrev: Ancestor of ....
      Title: Ancestor of ....
      Text: Ancestor of
      Page: Bing Crosby
      Quality: 1
    16. Abbrev: A History of Wales
      Title: Davies, John, <i>A History of Wales</i> (Allen Lane, The Penguin Press, London, 1993)
      Repository:
        Name: Cheryl Varner Library
        Gray Court, SC

      Page: p. 180
      Quality: 3
    17. Abbrev: Ancestor of ....
      Title: Ancestor of ....
      Text: Ancestor of
      Page: Humphrey Bogart
      Quality: 1
    18. Abbrev: The Plantagenet Ancestry
      Title: Turton, William Harry, <i>The Plantagenet Ancestry</i> (DSO Genealogical Publishing, Baltimore, 1984, 1993)
      Page: p. ii
      Quality: 3
    19. Abbrev: Ancestor of ....
      Title: Ancestor of ....
      Text: Ancestor of
      Page: John Wayne
      Quality: 1
    20. Abbrev: Edward I
      Title: Prestwich, Michael, <i>Edward I</i> (Yale University Press, New Haven and London, 1997)
      Repository:
        Name: Cheryl Varner Library
        Gray Court, SC

      Page: p. 127
      Quality: 3
    21. Abbrev: Ancestor of ....
      Title: Ancestor of ....
      Text: Ancestor of
      Page: Dick Van Dyke
      Quality: 1
    22. Abbrev: Who's Who in the Middle Ages
      Title: Fines, John, <i>Who's Who in the Middle Ages</i> (Barnes and Noble Books, New York, 1995)
      Repository:
        Name: Cheryl Varner Library
        Gray Court, SC

      Page: p. 174-177
      Quality: 3
    23. Abbrev: Ancestor of ....
      Title: Ancestor of ....
      Text: Ancestor of
      Page: Richard Gere
      Quality: 1
    24. Abbrev: Castle Acre Castle and Priory
      Title: Coad, Jonathan; Coppack, Glyn, <i>Castle Acre Castle and Priory</i> (English Heritage, London, 1998)
      Repository:
        Name: Cheryl Varner Library
        Gray Court, SC

      Page: p. 45
      Quality: 3
    25. Abbrev: Ancestor of ....
      Title: Ancestor of ....
      Text: Ancestor of
      Page: Val Kilmer
      Quality: 1
    26. Abbrev: "Crowning Moments"
      Title: Brooksbank, Elaine, "Crowning Moments" (REALM, June 2002, Romsey Publishing Company Ltd.)
      Repository:
        Name: Cheryl Varner Library
        Gray Court, SC

      Page: p. 67
      Quality: 3
    27. Abbrev: Descendant of.....
      Title: Descendant of.....
      Text: Descendant of......
      Page: Attila The Hun
      Quality: 1
    28. Abbrev: GEDCOM file imported on 8 Aug 2004
      Title: GEDCOM file. Created on 29 Dec 2003. Imported on 8 Aug 2004.
    29. Abbrev: Ancestor of ....
      Title: Ancestor of ....
      Text: Ancestor of
      Page: Elvis Presly
      Quality: 1
    30. Abbrev: Ancestor of ....
      Title: Ancestor of ....
      Text: Ancestor of
      Page: Shirley Temple
      Quality: 1
    31. Abbrev: Ancestor of ....
      Title: Ancestor of ....
      Text: Ancestor of
      Page: Kenny Rogers
      Quality: 1
    32. Abbrev: Ancestor of ....
      Title: Ancestor of ....
      Text: Ancestor of
      Page: Anthony Perkins
      Quality: 1
    33. Abbrev: Ancestor of ....
      Title: Ancestor of ....
      Text: Ancestor of
      Page: Brad Pitt
      Quality: 1
    34. Abbrev: Ancestor of ....
      Title: Ancestor of ....
      Text: Ancestor of
      Page: Miley Cyrus
      Quality: 1
    35. Abbrev: Ancestor of ....
      Title: Ancestor of ....
      Text: Ancestor of
      Page: Halle Berry
      Quality: 1
    36. Abbrev: Ancestor of ....
      Title: Ancestor of ....
      Text: Ancestor of
      Page: Fred Gwynne
      Quality: 1
    37. Abbrev: Ancestor of ....
      Title: Ancestor of ....
      Text: Ancestor of
      Page: Vincent Price
      Quality: 1
    38. Abbrev: Descendant of.....
      Title: Descendant of.....
      Text: Descendant of......
      Page: Charlemagne
      Quality: 1
    39. Abbrev: Ancestor of ....
      Title: Ancestor of ....
      Text: Ancestor of
      Page: Teri Hatcher
      Quality: 1
    40. Abbrev: Ancestor of ....
      Title: Ancestor of ....
      Text: Ancestor of
      Page: L. Ron Hubbard (Author)
      Quality: 1
    41. Abbrev: [Ancestry of David A. Blocher: Maternal]
      Title: Ancestry of David A. Blocher (Maternal)
      Author: David A. Blocher (personal use) dblocher51@yahoo.com
      Text: Ancestry of David A. Blocher (Maternal)
    42. Abbrev: [Ancestry of David A. Blocher: Paternal]
      Title: Ancestry of David A. Blocher (Paternal)
      Author: David A. Blocher (personal use) dblocher51@yahoo.com
      Text: Ancestry of David A. Blocher (Paternal)
    43. Abbrev: [Ancestry of Jesse James (Outlaw)]
      Title: Ancestry of Jesse James (Outlaw)
      Author: David A. Blocher (dblocher51@yahoo.com)
      Publication: Personal Use
      Text: Ancestry of Jesse James (Outlaw)
    44. Abbrev: [Ancestry of Meriwether Lewis (Explorer)]
      Title: Ancestry of Meriwether Lewis (Explorer)
      Text: Ancestry of Meriwether Lewis (Explorer)
      Note:
      One half of the team of 'Lewis & Clark' that mapped out the Pacific Northwest.
    45. Abbrev: Ancestor of ....
      Title: Ancestor of ....
      Text: Ancestor of
      Page: Hugh Beaumont
      Quality: 1
    46. Abbrev: [Ancestry of Mark Willis Ballard]
      Title: [Ancestry of Mark Willis Ballard]
      Text: Ancestry of Mark Willis Ballard
      Page: Paternal Lineage
      Quality: 3
    47. Abbrev: [Ancestry of Mark Willis Ballard]
      Title: [Ancestry of Mark Willis Ballard]
      Text: Ancestry of Mark Willis Ballard
      Page: Maternal Lineage
      Quality: 3
    48. Abbrev: [Ancestry of President Barack Obama]
      Title: [Ancestry of President Barack Obama]
      Text: Ancestry of President Barack Obama
    49. Abbrev: [Ancestry of Benedict Arnold (Rev. Traitor)]
      Title: [Ancestry of Benedict Arnold (Rev. Traitor)]
      Text: Ancestry of Benedict Arnold (Rev. Traitor)
    50. Abbrev: [Ancestry of Laura Ingles Wilder]
      Title: Ancestry of Laura Ingles Wilder
      Text: Ancestry of Laura Ingles Wilder
    51. Abbrev: [Ancestry of Richard Gere]
      Title: Ancestry of Richard Gere
      Text: Ancestry of Richard Gere
    52. Abbrev: [Ancestry of Fred Gwynne]
      Title: Ancestry of Fred Gwynne
      Text: Ancestry of Fred Gwynne
      Page: Herman Munster of the TV Sitcom "The Munsters"
      Quality: 3
    53. Abbrev: [Ancestry of Linda Joyce Neely]
      Title: Ancestry of Linda Joyce Neely
      Publication: Created for Personal use, no publication.
      Text: Ancestry of Linda Joyce Neely
      Page: Genealogy Colaborator
      Quality: 3
    54. Abbrev: [Ancestry of Dennis Eugene King]
      Title: Ancestry of Dennis Eugene King
      Text: Ancestry of Dennis Eugene King
      Page: 1st Cousin of David A. Blocher
      Quality: 3
    55. Abbrev: [Plantagenet Descent]
      Title: Plantagenet Descent
      Text: Plantagenet Descent
    56. Abbrev: Plantagenet Ancestry of Seventeenth Century Coloni
      Title: Faris, David, <i>Plantagenet Ancestry of Seventeenth Century Colonists</i> (Genealogical Publishers, Baltimore, MD, 1996)
      Page: p. 228
      Quality: 3
    57. Abbrev: The Plantagenet Encyclopedia
      Title: Hallam, Elizabeth, General Editor, <i>The Plantagenet Encyclopedia</i> (Cresent Books, New York, 1996)
      Repository:
        Name: Cheryl Varner Library
        Gray Court, SC

      Page: p. 86
      Quality: 3
    58. Abbrev: v14t1829bryan.FTW
      Title: v14t1829bryan.FTW
    59. Abbrev: The Seven Edwards of England
      Title: Patmore, K.A., <i>The Seven Edwards of England</i> (Methuen & Co., Ltd., London, 1911)
      Page: p. 42
      Quality: 3
    60. Abbrev: The Plantagenet Encyclopedia
      Title: Hallam, Elizabeth, General Editor, <i>The Plantagenet Encyclopedia</i> (Cresent Books, New York, 1996)
      Repository:
        Name: Cheryl Varner Library
        Gray Court, SC

      Page: p. 67
      Quality: 3
    61. Abbrev: Leeds Castle
      Title: Henley, Mavis, Leeds Castle (Leeds Castle Foundation, Philip Wilson Publishers Limited, London, 1994)
      Repository:
        Name: Cheryl Varner Library
        Gray Court, SC

      Page: flyleaf
      Quality: 3
    62. Abbrev: Online Resource
      Title: Online Resource
      Note:
      Online Resource.
      Page: h t t p : / / e n . w i k i p e d i a.org/wiki/Style_of_the_British_sovereign#Styles_of_English_sovereigns
      Quality: 3
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