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  • ID: I60556
  • Name: Henry VIII Tudor
  • Given Name: Henry VIII
  • Surname: Tudor
  • Suffix: Tudor King Of England
  • Name: King Henry
  • Given Name: King
  • Surname: Henry
  • Suffix: VIII
  • Sex: M
  • Birth: 28 Jun 1491 in Palace, Greenwich
  • Note:
    Sources for this Information:
    date: [Ref: CP III p175, CP III p443, Paget HRHCharles p33, Paget HRHCharles p89], place: [Ref: CP III p443, Paget HRHCharles p33], parents: [Ref: CP III p443, Paget HRHCharles p33, Paget HRHCharles p89], father: [Ref: CP III p175]
  • Christening: Church Of The Observants, Greenwich
  • Note:
    Sources for this Information:
    place: [Ref: CP III p443]
  • Death: 1547 in Whitehall
  • Note:
    Sources for this Information:
    date: [Ref: CP VII p482] 28 Jan 1547 [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p33, Paget HRHCharles p89], place: [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p33]
  • Burial: 1547 Windsor Castle
  • Note:
    Sources for this Information:
    place: [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p33]
  • Event: Info 6
  • Note: See Stirnet Genealogy at http://www.stirnet.com/HTML/genie/british/tt/tudor01.htm & GENEALOGY.EU by Miroslav Marek at http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/tudor.html
  • _UID: 954ADFA4A409476189D216429C1405E908E1
  • Change Date: 2 Sep 2011 at 14:14
  • Note:
    Henry VIII of England
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_VIII_of_England

    Reign 22 April 1509 - 28 January 1547
    Coronation 24 June 1509
    Born 28 June 1491 Palace of Placentia
    Died 28 January 1547 Palace of Whitehall
    Buried St George's Chapel at Windsor Castle
    Predecessor Henry VII
    Successor Edward VI
    Consort Catherine of Aragon
    Anne Boleyn
    Jane Seymour
    Anne of Cleves
    Catherine Howard
    Catherine Parr
    Issue Mary I
    Elizabeth I
    Edward VI
    Royal House Tudor
    Father Henry VII
    Mother Elizabeth of York
    Henry VIII (28 June 1491–28 January 1547) was King of England and Lo rd of Ireland (later King of Ireland) from 22 April 1509 until his deat h. He was the second monarch of the Tudor dynasty, succeeding his fathe r, Henry VII. Henry VIII is famous for having been married six times, "div orcing" two by execution, and ultimately breaking with Rome. He wielded pe rhaps the most untrammelled power of any English monarch, and brought abo ut the Dissolution of the Monasteries, and the union of England and Wales.

    Several significant pieces of legislation were enacted during Henry VIII 's reign. They included the several Acts which severed the English Chur ch from the Roman Catholic Church and established Henry as the supreme he ad of the Church in England; the Laws in Wales Acts 1535-1542, which unit ed England and Wales into one nation; the Buggery Act 1533, the first anti -sodomy enactment in England; and the Witchcraft Act 1542, which punish ed 'invoking or conjuring an evil spirit' with death.

    Henry VIII is known to have been an avid gambler and dice player. In his y outh, he excelled at sports, especially jousting, hunting, and royal tenni s. He was also an accomplished musician, author, and poet; his best kno wn piece of music is Pastyme With Good Company (The Kynges Ballade). Hen ry VIII was also involved in the construction-from-scratch and improveme nt of several significant buildings, including Nonsuch Palace, King's Coll ege Chapel in Cambridge and Westminster Abbey in London - the existing bui ldings improved were often properties confiscated from Wolsey (such as Chr ist Church, Oxford, Hampton Court Palace, palace of Whitehall) and Trini ty College, Cambridge.

    Contents
    1 Early life
    2 Early reign
    3 The King's Great Matter
    4 Religious upheaval
    5 Birth of a Prince
    6 Major Acts
    7 Henry's Innovative Court: expansion of knowledge and creativity in the a rts and sciences
    8 Later years
    9 Death and succession
    10 Legacy
    11 In popular culture
    11.1 Stage drama
    11.2 Fiction
    11.3 Film
    11.4 TV – fiction
    11.5 TV – documentary
    11.6 Music – music hall
    11.7 Music – Other
    12 Style and arms
    13 Issue
    14 Trivia
    15 See also
    16 Notes
    17 References
    18 Further reading
    19 External links

    Early life
    English Royalty
    House of Tudor
    Henry VIII
    Children include
    Henry, Duke of Cornwall
    Mary I
    Elizabeth I
    Edward VI

    The future Henry VIII was born at the Palace of Placentia in Greenwi ch in 1491Born at the Palace of Placentia at Greenwich, Henry VIII was t he third child of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York. His maternal grandparen ts were King Edward IV of England and Queen Elizabeth Woodville. Only thr ee of Henry VIII's six siblings: Arthur (the Prince of Wales), Margaret a nd Mary, survived infancy. His Lancastrian father acquired the throne by r ight of conquest, his army defeating and killing the last Plantagenet Ki ng Richard III, but further solidified his hold by marrying Elizabeth, t he daughter of the Yorkist King Edward IV. In 1493, the young Henry was ap pointed Constable of Dover Castle and Lord Warden of the Cinque Port s. In 1494, he was created Duke of York. He was subsequently appointed Ea rl Marshal of England and Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, though still a child .

    In 1501 he attended the wedding of his elder brother Arthur and Catheri ne of Aragon, who were at the time only about fifteen and sixteen years ol d, respectively. The two were sent to spend time in Wales, as was customa ry for the heir-apparent and his wife, but Arthur caught an infection a nd died. Consequently, at the age of eleven, Henry, Duke of York, found hi mself heir-apparent to the Throne. Soon thereafter, he was created Prin ce of Wales.

    Henry VII wanted a marital alliance between England and Spain through a ma rriage between Henry, Prince of Wales, and Catherine. Since the Prin ce of Wales sought to marry his brother's widow, he first had to obta in a dispensation from the Pope from the impediment of affinity. Catheri ne maintained that her first marriage was never consummated; if she were c orrect, no papal dispensation would have been necessary, but merely a diss olution of ratified marriage. Nonetheless, both the English and Spanish pa rties agreed on the necessity of a papal dispensation for the removal of a ll doubts regarding the legitimacy of the marriage. Due to the impatien ce of Catherine's mother, Queen Isabella, the Pope hastily granted his dis pensation in a Papal Bull. Thus, fourteen months after her husband's deat h, Catherine found herself engaged to his brother, the Prince of Wale s. By 1505, however, Henry VII lost interest in an alliance with Spain, a nd the young Prince of Wales was forced to declare that his betrothal h ad been arranged without his assent.

    Early reign
    Henry VIII ascended the throne in 1509 upon his father's death. Catheri ne was previously married to to Henry's older brother Arthur but he grew s ick and died at an early age .Some say that the young king actually fe ll in love with Catherine, who was considerably older than him. More likel y, Catherine's father, the Aragonese King Ferdinand II, desired to contr ol England through his daughter, and consequently insisted on her marria ge to the new English king. In any case, Henry VIII wed Catherine of Arag on about nine weeks after his accession on June 11, 1509 at Greenwich, des pite the concerns of Pope Julius II and William Warham, the Archbish op of Canterbury, regarding the marriage's validity. They were both crown ed at Westminster Abbey on 24 June 1509. Queen Catherine's first pregnan cy ended in a miscarriage in 1510. She gave birth to a son, Henry, on 1 Ja nuary 1511, but he only lived until February 22.

    Monarchical Styles of
    King Henry VIII of England
    Reference style: His Majesty (first English king to use Majesty)
    Spoken style: Your Majesty
    Alternative style: Sir

    Upon his accession, Henry was faced with the problematic issues posed by R ichard Empson and Edmund Dudley, two ministers of Henry VII's reign who im posed heavy arbitrary taxes on the nobility. In one of the many ways in wh ich he tried to separate himself from the principals of his father's reig n, he had them imprisoned in the Tower of London and later beheaded. Henry 's constant willingness for war would prove to be another way in whi ch he undertook to distance himself from Henry VII's reign; his predecess or favouring peace.


    Anonymous portrait of Henry VIII c. 1509For two years after Henry's access ion, Richard Fox, the Bishop of Winchester and Lord Privy Seal, and Willi am Warham controlled matters of state. From 1511 onwards, however, power w as held by the ecclesiastic Thomas Wolsey. In 1511, Henry joined the Ho ly League, a body of European rulers opposed to the French King Louis XI I. The League also included such European rulers as Pope Julius II, the Ho ly Roman Emperor Maximilian I, and Ferdinand II, with whom Henry also sign ed the Treaty of Westminster. Henry personally joined the English Ar my as they crossed the English Channel into France, and took part in sieg es and battles. In 1514, however, Ferdinand left the alliance, and the oth er parties made peace with the French. Irritation towards Spain led to dis cussion of a divorce with Queen Catherine. However, upon the accessi on of the French King Francis I in 1515, England and France grew antagonis tic, and Henry became reconciled with Ferdinand. In 1516 Queen Catherine g ave birth to a girl, Mary, encouraging Henry in the belief that he could s till have a male heir despite his wife's previous failed pregnancies (o ne stillbirth, one miscarriage, and two short-lived infants). Ferdinand di ed in 1516, to be succeeded by his grandson (Queen Catherine's nephew) Cha rles V. By October 1518 Wolsey had engineered the Papacy-led Treaty of Lon don to resemble an English triumph of foreign diplomacy, placing Engla nd at the centre of a new European alliance with the ostensible aim of rep elling Moorish invasions through Spain, which was the Pope's original ai m. In 1519, when Maximilian also died, Wolsey, who was by that time a Card inal, secretly proposed Henry as a candidate for the post of Holy Roman Em peror, though supporting the French King Francis in public. In the end, ho wever, Charles was chosen by the prince-electors. The subsequent rivalry b etween Francis and Charles allowed Henry to act as a mediator between the m. Henry came to hold the balance of power in Europe. Both Francis and Cha rles sought Henry's favour, the former in a dazzling and spectacular mann er at the Field of Cloth of Gold, and the latter more solemnly at Kent. Af ter 1521, however, England's influence in Europe began to wane. Henry ente red into an alliance with Charles V through the Treaty of Bruges, and Fran cis I was defeated by Charles' imperial armies at the Battle of Pavia in F ebruary 1525. Charles' reliance on Henry subsided, as did England's pow er in Europe, and Henry was refused help to acquire the Fleur-de-Lys, desp ite Charles' guarantees. This lead to the Treaty of Westminster in 1527. H enry's interest in European affairs extended to the attack on Luther's Ger man revolution. In 1521, he dedicated his Defence of the Seven Sacraments to Pope Leo X, earning himself the title of "Defender of the Faith" (Defen sor Fidei). Prior to this, his title had been "illustrissimus", meaning "m ost illustrious". The later title was maintained even after his break wi th Rome, and it is still used by the British monarch today.

    The King's Great Matter
    Henry VIII's accession was the first peaceful one England had witness ed in many years; however, the new Tudor dynasty's legitimacy could y et be tested. The English people seemed distrustful of female rulers, a nd Henry felt only a male heir could secure the throne. Although Queen Cat herine had been pregnant at least seven times (for the last time in 1518 ), only one child, the Princess Mary, had survived beyond infancy. Henry h ad previously been happy with mistresses, including Mary Boleyn and Elizab eth Blount, with whom he had had an illegitimate son, Henry Fitzroy. In 15 26, when it became clear that Queen Catherine could have no further childr en, he began to pursue Mary Boleyn's sister, Anne. Although it was almo st certainly Henry's desire for a male heir that made him determined to di vorce Catherine, he was very infatuated with Anne, despite her child-beari ng inexperience and famously plain looks.

    The Six Wives of
    King Henry VIII
    Catherine of Aragon
    Anne Boleyn
    Jane Seymour
    Anne of Cleves
    Catherine Howard
    Catherine Parr
    Henry's long and arduous attempt to end his marriage to Queen Catherine be came known as "The King's Great Matter". Cardinal Wolsey and William Warh am quietly began an inquiry into the validity of her marriage to Henry. Qu een Catherine, however, testified her marriage to Arthur, Prince of Wal es had never been consummated, thus there was no impediment to her subsequ ent marriage to Henry. The inquiry could proceed no further, and was dropp ed.

    Without informing Cardinal Wolsey, Henry directly appealed to the Holy Se e. He sent his secretary William Knight to Rome to argue that Julius II 's Bull was obtained by trickery, and consequently void. In addition, he r equested Pope Clement VII (1523–34) to grant a dispensation allowing h im to marry any woman, even in the first degree of affinity; such a dispen sation was necessary because Henry had previously had intercourse with An ne Boleyn's sister Mary. Knight found that Pope Clement VII was practical ly the prisoner of the Emperor Charles V as a result of the Italian War s. He had difficulty gaining access to the Pope, and when he finally di d, he could accomplish little. Clement VII did not agree to annul the marr iage, but he did grant the desired dispensation, probably presuming that t he dispensation would be of no effect as long as Henry remained marri ed to Catherine.

    Being advised of the King's predicament, Cardinal Wolsey sent Stephen Gard iner and Edward Fox to Rome. Perhaps fearing Queen Catherine's nephew, Cha rles V, Pope Clement VII initially demurred. Fox was sent back with a comm ission authorising the commencement of proceedings, but the restrictions i mposed made it practically meaningless. Gardiner strove for a "decretal co mmission", which decided the points of law beforehand, and left only quest ions of fact to be decided. Clement VII was persuaded to accept Gardiner 's proposal, and permitted Cardinal Wolsey and Lorenzo Cardinal Campegg io to try the case jointly. His decretal commission was issued in secre t; it was not to be shown to anybody, and was to always remain in Cardin al Campeggio's possession. Points of law were already settled in the commi ssion; the Papal Bull authorising Henry's marriage to Catherine w as to be declared void if the grounds alleged therein were false. For inst ance, the Bull would be void if it falsely asserted that the marriage w as absolutely necessary to maintain the Anglo-Spanish alliance.

    Cardinal Campeggio arrived in England in 1528. Proceedings, however, we re brought to a halt when the Spanish produced a second document alleged ly granting the necessary dispensation. It was asserted that, a few mont hs before he had granted papal dispensation in a public Bull, Pope Juli us II had secretly granted the same in a private Brief sent to Spain. T he decretal commission, however, only made mention of the Bull; it did n ot authorise Cardinal Campeggio and Cardinal Wolsey to determine the valid ity of the Brief and for eight months, the parties wrangled over its authe nticity. During the spring of 1529, Henry's legal team assembled the libel us (the summary of Henry's royal arguments, including Lev: 2021) that w as presented before the papal legates, where the following may be observe d: 18 June, 1529 'The Queen was summoned to the great hall of the Black Fr iar's convent in London. The King, on a raised platform, sat at the upp er end. Some distance away Catherine was given her place. The Cardinals, s itting lower than the King, flanked the royal presence, and near them t he Archbishop of Canterbury and the bishops were given position. Doctor Ri chard Sampson, afterwards Bishop of Chichester, and Doctor John Bell, afte rwards Bishop of Worcester, led those who pleaded for the King. Representi ng the Queen was John Fisher Bishop of Rochester, and Doctor Standish, a G ray Friar and Bishop of St. Asaph.' Following a series of deliberations, t he matter was appealed to Rome, primarily after Catherine's nephew, Charl es V, pressured the Pope into recalling Cardinal Campeggio and Catherine w as then placed in the care of Sir Edmund Bedingfield at Kimbolton Castle.

    Angered with Cardinal Wolsey for the delay, Henry stripped him of his weal th and power. He was charged with præmunire — undermining the King's autho rity by agreeing to represent the Pope — but died on his way to trial. Wi th Cardinal Wolsey fell other powerful ecclesiastics in England; laymen we re appointed to offices such as those of Lord Chancellor and Lord Privy Se al, which were formerly confined to clergymen.

    Power then passed to Sir Thomas More (the new Lord Chancellor), Thomas Cra nmer (the Archbishop of Canterbury), and Thomas Cromwell, 1st Earl of Ess ex (the Secretary of State). On 25 January 1533, Cranmer participated in t he wedding of Henry and Anne Boleyn. In May, Cranmer pronounced Henry's ma rriage to Catherine void, and shortly thereafter declared the marria ge to Anne valid. The Princess Mary was deemed illegitimate, and was repla ced as heiress-presumptive by Queen Anne's new daughter, the Princess Eliz abeth. Catherine lost the title "Queen", and became the Dowager Prince ss of Wales (as wife of Arthur, her first husband; not as wife of Henry ); Mary was no longer a "Princess", but a mere "Lady". The Dowager Prince ss of Wales would die of cancer in 1536.

    Sir Thomas More, who had left office in 1533, accepted that Parliament cou ld make Anne queen, but refused to acknowledge its religious authority. In stead, he held that the Pope remained the head of the Church. As a resul t, he was charged with high treason, and beheaded in 1535. Judging h im to be a martyr, the Catholic Church later made him a saint.

    Religious upheaval
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    Main article: English Reformation
    Pope Clement VII responded in July 1533 with a bull excommunicating Hen ry and declaring his new marriage null and void. (Historians disagree on t he exact date of the excommunication. According to Winston Churchill's His tory of the English Speaking Peoples, the bull of 1533 was a draft with pe nalties left blank and was not made official until 1535. Others say he w as not officially excommunicated until 1538 by Pope Paul III.) Considerab le religious upheaval followed. Urged by Thomas Cromwell, Parliament pass ed several Acts that enforced the breach with Rome in the spring of 153 4. The Statute in Restraint of Appeals prohibited appeals from English ecc lesiastical courts to the Pope. It also prevented the Church from making a ny regulations without the King's consent. The Ecclesiastical Appointmen ts Act 1534 required the clergy to elect Bishops nominated by the Sovereig n. The Act of Supremacy 1534 declared that the King was "the only Supre me Head in Earth of the Church of England"; the Treasons Act 1534 ma de it high treason, punishable by death, to refuse to acknowledge the Ki ng as such. The Pope was denied sources of revenue such as Peter's Pence.

    Rejecting the decisions of the Pope, Parliament validated the marriage bet ween Henry and Anne with the Act of Succession 1534. Catherine's daughte r, the Lady Mary, was declared illegitimate, and Anne's issue were declar ed next in the line of succession. All adults were required to acknowled ge the Act's provisions; those who refused to do so were liable to impriso nment for life. The publisher or printer of any literature alleging that H enry's marriage to Anne was invalid was automatically guilty of high treas on, and could be punished by death.

    Opposition to Henry's religious policies was quickly suppressed. Several d issenting monks were tortured and executed. Cromwell, for whom was creat ed the post of "Vicegerent in Spirituals", was authorised to visit monaste ries, ostensibly to ensure that they followed royal instructions, but in r eality to assess their wealth. In 1536, an Act of Parliament allowed Hen ry to seize the possessions of the lesser monasteries (those with annual i ncomes of £200 or less).

    In 1536, Queen Anne began to lose Henry's favour. After the Princess Eliza beth's birth, Queen Anne had two pregnancies that ended in either miscarri age or stillbirth. Henry VIII, meanwhile, had begun to turn his attentio ns to another lady of his court, Jane Seymour. Perhaps encouraged by Thom as Cromwell, Henry had Anne arrested on charges of using witchcraft to tr ap Henry into marrying her, of having adulterous relationships with five o ther men, of incest with her brother George Boleyn, Viscount Rochfor d, of injuring the King and of conspiring to kill him, which amounted to t reason; the charges were most likely fabricated. The court trying the ca se was presided over by Anne's own uncle, Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfo lk. In May 1536, the Court condemned Anne and her brother to death, eith er by burning at the stake or by decapitation, whichever the King please d. The other four men Queen Anne had allegedly been involved with we re to be hanged, drawn and quartered. Lord Rochford was beheaded soon aft er the trial ended; the four others implicated had their sentences commut ed from hanging, drawing and quartering to decapitation. Anne was also beh eaded soon thereafter.

    Birth of a Prince
    Only days after Anne's execution in 1536, Henry married Jane Seymour. T he Act of Succession 1536 declared Henry's children by Queen Jane to be ne xt in the line of succession, and declared both the Lady Mary and the La dy Elizabeth illegitimate, thus excluding them. The King was granted the p ower to further determine the line of succession in his will. Jane gave bi rth to a son, the Prince Edward, in 1537, and died two weeks later of chil dbed fever. After Jane's death, the entire court mourned with Henry for so me time. Henry also considered her to be his only "true" wife, being the o nly one who had given him the male heir he so desperately sought.

    Major Acts
    At about the same time as his marriage to Jane Seymour, Henry granted h is assent to the Laws in Wales Act 1535, which legally annexed Wales, unit ing England and Wales into one nation. The Act provided for the sole u se of English in official proceedings in Wales, inconveniencing the numero us speakers of the Welsh language.

    Henry continued with his persecution of his religious opponents. In 153 6, an uprising known as the Pilgrimage of Grace broke out in Northern Engl and. To appease the rebellious Roman Catholics, Henry agreed to allow Parl iament to address their concerns. Furthermore, he agreed to grant a gener al pardon to all those involved. He kept neither promise, and a second upr ising occurred in 1537. As a result, the leaders of the rebellion were con victed of treason and executed. In 1538, Henry sanctioned the destructi on of shrines to Roman Catholic Saints. In 1539, England's remaining monas teries were all dissolved, and their property transferred to the Crow n. As a reward for his role, Thomas Cromwell was created Earl of Essex. Ab bots and priors lost their seats in the House of Lords; only archbishops a nd bishops came to comprise the ecclesiastical element of the body. The Lo rds Spiritual, as members of the clergy with seats in the House of Lords w ere known, were for the first time outnumbered by the Lords Temporal.

    Henry's Innovative Court: expansion of knowledge and creativity in the ar ts and sciences
    Henry was the quintessential Renaissance Man and his court was a mecca f or scholarly and artistic innovation. The discovery of America or "The N ew World" set the stage for Henry's innovative attitude. Henry was among t he first European rulers to learn about the true geography of the worl d, a revolutionary discovery. In 1507, the cartogophers Martin Waldseemüll er and Matthias Ringmann published the first "modern" map of the world, t he first map to accurately depict the American Continent and a separate At lantic and Pacific Ocean, a radical thought for the time.[1] This discove ry created an atmosphere of exploration and discovery in the arts and scie nces which Henry took full advantage of in his court and daily life.

    Later years
    Henry was shown the above picture of Anne of Cleves.Henry's only survivi ng son, the Prince Edward, Duke of Cornwall, is believed by many historia ns not to have been a particularly healthy child. Therefore, Henry desir ed to marry once again to ensure that a male could succeed him. Thomas Cro mwell, 1st Earl of Essex suggested Anne, the sister of the Protestant Du ke of Cleves, who was seen as an important ally in case of a Roman Cathol ic attack on England. Hans Holbein the Younger was dispatched to Clev es to paint a portrait of Anne for the King. After regarding Holbein's fla ttering portrayal, and urged by the complimentary description of Anne giv en by his courtiers, Henry agreed to wed Anne. On Anne's arrival in Englan d, Henry is said to have found her utterly unattractive, privately calli ng her a "Flanders Mare". She was painted totally without any signs of h er pockmarked face. Nevertheless, he married her on 6 January 1540.

    Soon thereafter, however, Henry desired to end the marriage, not only beca use of his personal feelings but also because of political consideration s. The Duke of Cleves had become engaged in a dispute with the Holy Rom an Emperor, with whom Henry had no desire to quarrel. Queen Anne was intel ligent enough not to impede Henry's quest for an annulment. She testifi ed that her marriage was never consummated. Henry was said to have come in to the room each night and merely kissed his new bride on the forehead bef ore sleeping. The marriage was subsequently annulled on the grounds that A nne had previously been contracted to marry another European nobleman. S he received the title of "The King's Sister", and was granted Hever Castl e, the former residence of Anne Boleyn's family. The Earl of Essex, meanwh ile, fell out of favour for his role in arranging the marriage, and was su bsequently attainted and beheaded. The office of Vicegerent in Spiritual s, which had been specifically created for him, was not filled, and sti ll remains vacant.

    On 28 July 1540 (the same day Lord Essex was executed) Henry married the y oung Catherine Howard, Anne Boleyn's first cousin. He was absolutely delig hted with his new queen. Soon after her marriage, however, Queen Catheri ne had an affair with the courtier, Thomas Culpeper. She also employed Fra ncis Dereham, who was previously informally engaged to her and had an affa ir with her prior to her marriage, as her secretary. Thomas Cranmer, who w as opposed to the powerful Catholic Howard family, brought evidence of Que en Catherine's activities to the King's notice. Though Henry originally re fused to believe the allegations, he allowed Cranmer to conduct an investi gation, which resulted in Queen Catherine's implication. When questione d, the Queen could have admitted a prior contract to marry Dereham, whi ch would have made her subsequent marriage to Henry invalid, but she inste ad claimed that Dereham had forced her to enter into an adulterous relatio nship. Dereham, meanwhile, exposed Queen Catherine's relationship with Tho mas Culpeper.

    In December 1541, Culpeper and Dereham were executed. Catherine was condem ned not by a trial, but by an Act of Attainder passed by Parliament. The A ct recited the evidence against the Queen, and Henry would have been oblig ed to listen to the entire text before granting the Royal Assent. Becau se "the repetition of so grievous a Story and the recital of so infamo us a crime" in the King's presence "might reopen a Wound already closi ng in the Royal Bosom", a special clause permitting Commissioners to gra nt the Royal Assent on the King's behalf was inserted in the Act. This met hod of granting the Royal Assent had never been used before, but, in lat er reigns, it came to replace the traditional personal appearance of the S overeign in Parliament.

    Catherine's marriage was annulled shortly before her execution. As was t he case with Anne Boleyn, Catherine Howard could not have technically be en guilty of adultery, as the marriage was officially null and void from t he beginning. Again, this point was ignored, and Catherine was execut ed on 13 February 1542. She was only about eighteen years old at the time.

    Henry married his last wife, the wealthy widow Catherine Parr, in 1543. S he argued with Henry over religion; she was a Protestant, but Henry remain ed a Catholic. This behaviour almost led to her undoing, but she saved her self by a show of submissiveness. She helped reconcile Henry with his fir st two daughters, the Lady Mary and the Lady Elizabeth. In 1544, an A ct of Parliament put them back in the line of succession after the Prin ce Edward, Duke of Cornwall, though they were still deemed illegitimate. T he same Act allowed Henry to determine further succession to the thro ne in his will.

    A mnemonic for the fates of Henry's wives is "divorced, beheaded, died, di vorced, beheaded, survived". An alternative version is "King Henry the Eig hth, to six wives he was wedded: One died, one survived, two divorced, t wo beheaded". The doggerel, however, may be misleading. Firstly, Henry w as never divorced from any of his wives; rather, his marriages to them we re annulled. Secondly, four marriages — not two — ended in annulments. T he marriages to Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard were annulled shortly bef ore their executions.

    Death and succession
    King Henry VIII died in the Palace of Whitehall in 1547Later in life, Hen ry was grossly overweight, with a waist measurement of 54 inches (137 cm ), and possibly suffered from gout. The well known theory that he suffer ed from syphilis was first promoted approximately 100 years after his deat h. More recent support for this idea has come from a greater understandi ng of the disease and has led to the suggestion that Edward VI, Mary I, a nd Elizabeth I all displayed symptoms characteristic of congenital syphili s. Henry's increased size dates from a jousting accident in 1536. He suffe red a thigh wound which not only prevented him from taking exercise, but a lso gradually became ulcerated and may have indirectly led to his death, w hich occurred on 28 January 1547 at the Palace of Whitehall. He died on wh at would have been his father's 90th birthday. Henry VIII was buri ed in St George's Chapel in Windsor Castle, next to his wife Jane Seymou r. Almost a hundred years later Charles I would also be buried in his grav e. Within a little more than a decade after his death, all three of his ch ildren sat on the English throne, and were his only descendants.

    It is suggested that Henry VIII had another child, Richard Edwardes. Richa rd's mother was Henry's mistress, Agnes Blewitt. Agnes was married at t he time to William Edwardes and Richard took the name of his step-father o ut of shame. Henry never actually acknowledged Richard, but it is said th at they were very close. Agnes had two other sons with William Edwardes, b ut Richard was the only one who she said was the son of Henry VIII. The de scendants of Richard Edwardes are the only direct descendants of Henry VII I.

    Under the Act of Succession 1544, Henry's only surviving son, Edward, inhe rited the Crown, becoming Edward VI. Edward was the first Protestant monar ch to rule England. Since Edward was only nine years old at the time, he c ould not exercise actual power. Henry's will designated sixteen executo rs to serve on a council of regency until Edward reached the age of eighte en. The executors chose Edward Seymour, 1st Earl of Hertford, Jane Seymour 's elder brother, to be Lord Protector of the Realm. In the event of a dea th without children, Edward was to be succeeded (in default of his issu e) by Henry VIII's daughter by Catherine of Aragon, the Lady Mary. If t he Lady Mary did not have children, she was to be succeeded by his daught er by Anne Boleyn, the Lady Elizabeth. Finally, if the Lady Elizabeth al so did not have children, she was to be followed by the descendants of Hen ry VIII's deceased sister, Mary Tudor, Duchess of Suffolk.

    Legacy
    Together with Alfred the Great, Henry is traditionally called one of the f ounders of the Royal Navy. There are good reasons for this - his reign fea tured some naval warfare and, more significantly, large royal investme nt in shipbuilding (including a few spectacular 'great ships' such as t he Mary Rose), dockyards (such as HMNB Portsmouth) and naval innovations ( eg the use of cannon onboard ship - although archers were still deploy ed on medieval-style forecastles and bowcastles as the ship's primary arma ment on large ships, or co-armament where cannon were used). Howeve r, it is a misnomer since Henry did not bequeath to his immediate successo rs a 'navy' in the sense of a formalised organisation with structures, ran ks, formalised munitioning structures etc, but only in the sense of a s et of ships (albeit some spectacular ones). Elizabeth I still had to cobb le together a set of privately-owned ships to fight off the Spanish Arma da (which was consisted of about 130 war ships and converted merchant ship s) and in the former, formal sense the modern British navy, the Royal Nav y, is largely a product of the Anglo-Dutch naval rivalry of the seventeen th century.

    By his break with Rome, Henry incurred the threat of a large-scale Fren ch or Spanish invasion. To guard against this he strengthened existing coa stal defence fortresses (such as Dover Castle and, also at Dover, Moat Bul wark and Archcliffe Fort - he personally visited for a few months to super vise, as is commemorated in the modern exhibition in Dover Castle's keep t here). He also built a chain of new 'castles' (in fact, large bastioned a nd garrisoned gun batteries) along Britain's southern coast from East Angl ia to Cornwall, largely built of material gained from the demolition of mo nasteries. These were also known as Henry VIII's Device Forts.

    In popular culture

    Stage drama
    Henry VIII was the subject of William Shakespeare's historical play, Hen ry VIII: All Is True, written once it was safe to do so (once his daught er Elizabeth I had died). The play, however, has never been one of Shakesp eare's more popular plays. Henry VIII was playing on June 29, 1613 when t he Globe Theatre burnt down. Ironically, in another Renaissance play in wh ich Henry might be expected to appear - the Elizabethan play Sir Thomas Mo re, he is always an offstage presence, mentioned but never seen.

    The most notable modern example is Robert Bolt's play and film A Man for A ll Seasons (see also 'Cinematic films', below).

    Fiction
    Henry VIII was also the subject of a best-selling fictional autobiograp hy written by Margaret George.

    Film
    There have been many films about Henry and his court. Two that bear menti on are The Private Life of Henry VIII (1933), starring Charles Laughton, w hose performance earned him an Academy Award, and The Six Wives of Henry V III (1972), starring Keith Michell. Richard Burton and Geneviève Bujold we re nominated for Academy Awards for Best Actor and Best Actress for the ir roles as Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn in Anne of the Thousand Days (1969 ). Henry, played by Robert Shaw, also appears as one of the main characte rs in the multiple-Oscar-winning movie about Thomas More, A Man for All Se asons (1966), based upon Robert Bolt's play of the same name.

    Sid James played Henry in the movie Carry On Henry (1970), which portray ed the relationship between the King and two fictitious wives ("Marie of N ormandy" and "Bettina", a mistress).

    TV – fiction
    He has also been a TV stalwart, both in drama and documentary, and in Amer ica and the UK. In drama, one notable example is the 1970 BBC series 't he Six Wives of Henry VIII', made up of six television plays, one per wif e, each by a different author. Another is the 2003 ITV feature-length Hen ry VIII, with Ray Winstone as Henry VIII, critically panned for Hen ry as an East End gangster, spoken in Winstone's usual Cockney tones, surr ounded entirely by a court speaking in Received Pronunciation, such as Dav id Suchet as Wolsey.

    An episode of the 1960s American sitcom Bewitched had Samantha Stevens sta ving off a lustful Henry's intentions to make her his next wife. Henry's l ife was the subject of the famous but inaccurate Simpsons television episo de named "Margical History Tour" in 2004, in which Homer Simpson played t he King.

    In Homecoming: A Shot in D'Arc, an episode of Clone High, a dolphin impers onated Henry VIII to play on the basketball team. The writers chose Hen ry VIII because they viewed him as someone recognizable as a real historic al figure yet someone that most North Americans know almost nothing about.

    In 2006, Showtime Networks, Inc., parent company of the Showtime (USA) cab le network, and Peace Arch Entertainment, Inc. are producing a miniseri es entitled 'The Tudors', with Golden-Globe winning actor Jonathan Rhys Me yers playing the part of Henry VIII. It is being filmed in Dublin and al so stars Sam Neill as Cardinal Wolsey, and Jeremy Northam as Sir Thomas Mo re. Showtime has ordered ten episodes of the miniseries.

    TV – documentary
    In documentary, the leading academic on Henry, David Starkey leads the fie ld, with Channel 4 series entitled 'Henry VIII' and 'The Six Wives of Hen ry VIII' - the latter gave one episode each to Catherine of Aragon and An ne Boleyn, one jointly to Jane Seymour and Anne of Cleves, and another joi ntly to Catherine Howard and Catherine Parr. Henry also has an episo de to himself in his more recent series 'Monarchy' (Monarchy TV series).

    In 2002, Henry VIII placed 40th in a BBC-sponsored poll on the 100 Greate st Britons.

    Music – music hall
    Henry was certainly the inspiration for the title of the popular song "I 'm Henery the Eighth, I Am" (1911), recorded by Harry Champion and lat er by Herman's Hermits; the actual song, however, is about a man named Hen ry whose wife has been married to seven different individuals, all named H enry.

    Music – Other
    In 1973, Rick Wakeman released a rock concept album on The Six Wives of He nry VIII, his first solo album after splitting from Yes.

    A collective of rappers called Army of the Pharaohs have a song called Hen ry the 8th.

    Style and arms
    Henry VIII was the first English monarch to regularly use the style "Majes ty", though the alternatives "Highness" and "Grace" were also used from ti me to time.

    Several changes were made to the royal style during his reign. Henry origi nally used the style "Henry the Eighth, by the Grace of God, King of Engla nd, France and Lord of Ireland". In 1521, pursuant to a grant from Pope L eo X rewarding a book by Henry attacking Martin Luther and defending Catho licism, the royal style became "Henry the Eighth, by the Grace of God, Ki ng of England and France, Defender of the Faith and Lord of Ireland". Aft er the breach with Rome, Pope Paul III rescinded the grant of the title "D efender of the Faith", but an Act of Parliament declared that it remain ed valid.

    In 1535, Henry added the "supremacy phrase" to the royal style, which beca me "Henry the Eighth, by the Grace of God, King of England and France, Def ender of the Faith, Lord of Ireland and of the Church of England in Ear th Supreme Head". In 1536, the phrase "of the Church of England" chang ed to "of the Church of England and also of Ireland".

    In 1541, Henry had the Irish Parliament change the title "Lord of Irelan d" to "King of Ireland" after being advised that many Irish people regard ed the Pope as the true head of their country, with the Lord acting as a m ere representative. The reason the Irish regarded the pope as their overlo rd was because Ireland had originally been given to the English King Hen ry II by Pope Adrian IV in the twelfth century as a feudal territory und er papal overlordship. The meeting of Irish Parliament that proclaimed Hen ry VIII King of Ireland was the first meeting attended by the Gaelic Iri sh chieftains as well as the Anglo-Irish aristocrats. The style "Henry t he Eighth, by the Grace of God, King of England, France and Ireland, Defen der of the Faith and of the Church of England and also of Ireland in Ear th Supreme Head" remained in use until the end of Henry's reign.

    Henry's motto was Coeur Loyal (true heart) and he had this embroider ed on his clothes in the form of a heart symbol and with the word 'loyall '. His emblem was the Tudor rose and the Beaufort portcullis.

    Henry VIII's arms were the same as those used by his predecessors since He nry IV: Quarterly, Azure three fleurs-de-lys Or (for France) and Gules thr ee lions passant guardant in pale Or (for England).

    Issue

    Name Birth Death Notes
    By Catherine of Aragon (married June 11, 1509 annulled May 23, 1533; she d ied January 6, 1536)
    Miscarried daughter January 31, 1510 January 31, 1510
    Henry, Duke of Cornwall 1 January 1511 22 February 1511
    Unnamed son November 1513 November 1513
    Henry, Duke of Cornwall December 1514 December 1514
    Queen Mary I 18 February 1516 13 September 1558 married 1554, Phil ip II of Spain; no issue
    Unnamed child November 10, 1518 November 10, 1518
    By Anne Boleyn (married January 25, 1533 annulled 1536; she was executed M ay 19, 1536)
    Queen Elizabeth I 7 September 1533 24 March 1603 never married, no iss ue
    "Henry Tudor" 1534 1534 Historians are uncertain if the child was born a nd died shortly after birth, or if it was a miscarriage. The affair was hu shed up and we cannot even be certain of the child's sex.
    "Edward Tudor" 29 January 1536 29 January 1536
    By Jane Seymour (married May 20, 1536; she died October 25, 1537)
    King Edward VI 12 October 1537 6 July 1553
    By Anne of Cleves (married January 6, 1540 annulled 1540; she died July 1 7, 1557)
    no issue
    By Catherine Howard (married July 28, 1540 annulled 1541; she was execut ed February 13, 1542)
    no issue
    By Catherine Parr (married July 12, 1543; died September 5, 1548)
    no issue
    By Elizabeth Blount
    Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Richmond and Somerset 15 June 1519 18 June 1536 ill egitimate; married 1533, the Lady Mary Howard; no issue
    By The Lady Mary Boleyn (most historians now reject the legend that the fo llowing two children were fathered by Henry VIII)
    Catherine Carey c. 1524 15 January 1568 reputed illegitimate; married S ir Francis Knollys; had issue
    Henry Carey, Baron Hunsdon 4 March 1526 23 July 1596 reputed illegitimat e; married 1545, Ann Morgan; had issue
    By Mary Berkeley
    Sir Thomas Stucley c. 1525 August 4, 1578 reputed illegitimate; married An ne Curtis; had issue
    Sir John Perrot c. 1527 September 1592 reputed illegitimate; married (1) A nn Cheyney and (2) Jane Pruet; had issue
    By Joan Dyngley
    Etheldreda Malte c. 1529 aft. 1555 reputed illegitimate; married 1546–15 48 to John Harrington; no known issue

    * Note: Of Henry VIII's reputedly illegitimate children, only the Du ke of Richmond and Somerset was formally acknowledged by the King. The pat ernity of his other alleged illegitimate children is not fully establishe d. There may also have been other illegitimate children born to short-te rm unidentified mistresses.

    Trivia
    His court jester was named Will Somers.
    The only surviving piece of clothing worn by Henry VIII is a cap of mainte nance, awarded to the Mayor of Waterford, along with a bearing sword, in 1 536. It currently resides in the Waterford Museum of Treasures.
    It is widely believed (but not confirmed) that he composed the song Greens leeves for his lover and future Queen, Anne Boleyn.

    See also
    Royal Navy
    History of the Royal Navy
    The Tudors and the Royal Navy

    Notes
    ^ "The map reflected a huge leap forward in knowledge, recognizing the new ly found American land mass and forever changing mankind's understanding a nd perception of the world itself." Library of Congress.[1]

    References
    Bowle, John. Henry VIII: A Study of Power in Action Little, Brown, 1964.
    Bryant, M. Private Lives. Cassell, 2001.
    Eakins, L. E. (2004). "The Six Wives of Henry VIII".
    Farrow, John V. The Story of Thomas More. Collins, 1956.
    "Henry VIII". (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th ed. London: Cambrid ge University Press.
    Jokinen, A. (2004). "Henry VIII (1491–1547)".
    Moorhouse, Geoffrey. Great Harry's Navy: How Henry VIII Gave England Seapo wer
    Public Broadcasting Service. (2003). "The Six Wives of Henry VIII".
    Thurston, H. (1910). "Henry VIII". The Catholic Encyclopedia. (Vol. VII ). New York: Robert Appleton Company.
    Vallieres, S. (1999). "Tudor Succession Problems"
    Wagner, John A. (2003). "Bosworth Field to Bloody Mary: An Encycloped ia of the Early Tudors." (Greenwood). ISBN 1-57356-540-7.
    Weir, Alison. The Six Wives of Henry VIII. Bodley Head, 1991.
    Ask Ireland: Waterford Museum of Treasures Collection: Cap of Maintenan

    Further reading
    Weir, Alison. Henry VIII: The King and His Court. Ballantine Books, 200
    Williams, Neville. Henry VIII and His Court. Macmillan, 1971.
    J S Brewer; Robert Henry Brodie; James Gairdner. Letters and papers, forei gn and domestic, of the reign of Henry VIII,
    preserved in the Public Record Office, the British Museum, and elsewher e. 1965 2d ed. - from WorldCat [2] from TannerRitchie Publishing

    Luther Martin. Luther's Correspondence and Other Contemporary Letters, 2 v ols., tr.and ed. by Preserved Smith, Charles Michael Jacobs, The Luther an Publication Society, Philadelphia, Pa. 1913, 1918. vol.I (1507-1521) a nd vol.2 (1521-1530) from Google Books. Reprint of Vol.1, Wipf & Stock Pub lishers (March 2006). ISBN 1-59752-601-0
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_VIII_of_England


    For a listing of web sites that have the genealogy of family lines of roy al houses, many noble houses and more, go to the entry "INFORMATION, Roy al Houses family lines web sites" in this file.

    For the sources of information, see in this file under "INFORMATION, Sourc es of" and also "INFORMATION, General Clan Genealogy ". See also "Histor y" for a range of historical information.

    Which includes
    Royal and Noble Genealogical Data on the Web
    http://www.dcs.hull.ac.uk/public/genealogy/
    Index to royal Genealogical Data - ordered by lastname" at www.dcs.hull.ac .uk/public/genealogy/royal/gedx.html
    Peerages in Order of Precedence at www.dcs.hull.ac.uk/public/genealogy/roy al/peerage.html
    Author: Brian Tompsett
    This contains a huge amount of information including a great deal on Briti sh Peer's lineages, and Royal families of the many countries.

    Royal Genealogies -- Menu
    http://ftp.cac.psu.edu/~saw/royal/royalgen.html#index
    The site has a huge amount of information. Not as complete as "Royal and N oble Genealogical Data on the Web" but much quicker to move around in.
    By: Denis R. Reid, 149 Kimrose Lane, Broadview Heights, Ohio 44147-1258
    Internet Email address: ah189@cleveland.freenet.edu
    (216) 237-5364


    "Britain's Royal Families. The Complete Genealogy". Alison Weir, 1996. Pim lico. Random House.

    RHYME TO REMEMBER THEM BY
    Willy, Willy, Harry, Ste,
    Harry, Dick, John, Harry three,
    One, two, three Neds, Richard two,
    Henries four, five, six - then who?
    Edwards four, five, Dick the bad,
    Harries twain and Ned the lad,
    Mary, Bessie, James the vain,
    Charlie, Charlie, James again,
    William & Mary, Anna Gloria,
    Four Georges, William and Victoria,
    Edward, George, then Ned the eighth
    quickly goes and abdicat'th,
    leaving George, then Liz the second,
    and with Charlie next it's reckoned.
    That's the way our monarchs lie
    since Harold got it in the eye!
    PS. Sorry, Lady Jane Grey - you got the chop!

    RHYME TO REMEMBER THEM BY (2)

    Willy, Willy, Harry, Ste, (1027-1087, 1058-1100, 1070-1135, 1104-1154.) (D ates are for birth & death.)
    Harry, Dick, John, Harry three, (1133-1189, 1157-1199, 1166-1216, 1206-127 2)
    One, two, three Neds, Richard two, (1239-1307, 1284-1327, 1312-1377, 1367- 1399)
    Henries four, five, six - then who? (1367-1413,1387-1422,1421-1461)
    Edwards four, five, Dick the bad, (1441-1483, 1470-1483,1452-1485)
    Harries twain and Ned the lad, (1457-1509, 1491-1547, 1537-1553)
    Mary, Bessie, James the vain, (1516-1558, 1533-1603, 1566-1625)
    Charlie, Charlie, James again, (1600-1649, 1649-60 Commonwealth, 1630-168 5, 1633-1688)
    William & Mary, Anna Gloria, (1650-1702 & 1662-1694, 1665-1714)
    Four Georges, William and Victoria, (1660-1727, 1683-1760, 1738-1820, 1762 -1830, 1765-1837, 1837-1901)
    Edward, George, then Ned the eighth
    quickly goes and abdicat'th, (1841-1910, 1865-1936, 1894-1972-abdicated 19 37)
    leaving George, then Liz the second, (1895-1952, 1926--,
    and with Charlie next it's reckoned. (1948-
    That's the way our monarchs lie
    since Harold got it in the eye!
    PS. Sorry, Lady Jane Grey - you got the chop! (1537-1554)

    William (1982- )

    This rhyme has been memorized by British school children for a great ma ny years. In this version The current Royal Family has been added. It com es from "English Monarchs Dates & Ages" by John Owen Smith at http://www. johnowensmith.co.uk/histdate/monarchs.htm

    ANGLO SAXON & DANISH KINGS OF ENGLAND (Dates are of reign)
    Egbert King of Wessex & 1st of England (802-839) (6xg grandson of Cerdic 1 st King of West Saxons, d 534.)
    Ethelwulth (839-856 abdicated & 856-858) (Son of Egbert.)
    Ethelbald (856-860) (Son of Ethelwulth)
    Ethelbert (860-866)(Son of Ethelwulth)
    Ethelred (866-871)(Son of Ethelwulth)
    Alfred The Great (871-899) (Ethelbald, Ethelbert, Ethelred, & Alfred whe re brothers.)
    Edward the Elder (899-924)
    Athelstan (924-949)(Son of Edward, half brother of Edmund.)
    Edmund I The Elder (940-946,) (Son of Edward, half brother of Athelstan
    Edred (946-955)(Brother of Edmund.)
    Edwy (955-959)(Son of Edmund.)
    Edgar the Peaceful (959-975) (Son of Edmund.)
    Edward the Martyr (975-979)(Son of Edgar, half-brother of Ethelred.)
    Ethelred II the Unready 979-1013 & 1014-1016) (Son of Edgar, half-broth er of Edwar.)
    Sweyn Forkbeard (1013-1014) (King of Denmark.)
    Edmund Ironsides (April-Nov 1016) ( Son of Ethelred II)
    Canute (1016-1035)(Son of Sweyn & King of Denmark & Norway.)
    Harold I Harefoot (1037-1040) (Canute's son.)
    Hardicanute (1040-1042) (Canute's son & King of Denmark.)
    Edward the Confessor (1042-1066) (son of Ethelred the Unready.)
    Harold (Jan-Oct 1066) (Son of Godwin of Essex & Gytha grandniece of Sweyn)
    Edgar Atheling (Oct-Dec 1066 not crowned) (Grandson of Edmund Ironsides )

    Kings of Scotland
    Alpin King of Dalriada (d 834, killed fighting Picts.)
    Kenneth MacAlpine King of Scotland (834-859) (Son of Alpine.) (Dates a re of reign)
    Donald I (859-863) (Brother of Kenneth I.)
    Constantine I ((863-877. Killed in battle by Norseman.) (Son of Kenneth I .)
    Aed (877-878. Killed by his cousin Giric.) (Brother of Constantine I.)
    Eochaid (878-889) (Ruled with Giric. Grandson of Kenneth I.)
    Donald II (889-900) (Son of Constantine I.)
    Constantine II (900-943)(Son of Aed, abdicated and went to a monastery. Di ed 952.)
    Malcolm I (943-954. Killed in a rebellion.) (Son of Donald II.)
    Induff (954-962. Killed by Norseman.) (Son of Constantine II.)
    Duff (or Dubh) 'The Black' (962-966. Killed by Colin.) (Son of Malcolm I .)
    Colin (Culen) 'The Whelp' (966-971. Killed by King of Strathclyde.) (S on of Induff.)
    Kenneth II (971 995. Killed in blood feud.) (Brother of Duff.)
    Constantine III (995-997. Killed by Malcolm, Kenneth's son.) (Son of Colin .)
    Kenneth III 'The Grim' (997-1005. Killed by successor.) (Son of Duff.) (Da tes are of reign for him & above.)
    Malcolm II (945*-1034) (Son of Kenneth II) (Dates are of birth & death f or him & below.)
    Duncan I (1001*-1040. Killed in battle with Macbeth.)(Grandson of Malco lm II by his daughter.)
    Macbeth (1005*-1057. Killed in battle with Malcolm III.) (Grandson of Ken neth II.))
    Lulach (1032*-1058. Killed by Malcolm III.) (Stepson of Macbeth.)
    Malcolm III 'Canmore'(Big-headed) (1031*-1093. Killed in battle.) (S on of Duncan I. )(His 2nd wife was Margaret Atheling, so-called saint, sis ter of King Edgar Atheling & granddaughter of King Stephen of Hungary. The ir daughter married Henry I of England and was mother of Matilda, who w as mother of Henry II of England.)
    Donald III 'Donald Bane' (1033*- 1097) (Brother of Malcolm III.)
    Duncan II (1060*-1094. Killed in revolt.) (Son of Malcolm III.)
    Edgar (1074*-1107) (Son of Malcolm III, half-bother of Duncan II.)
    Alexander I 'The Fierce' (1076*-1124) (Brother of Edgar.)
    David I 'The Saint' (1080*-1153) (Brother of Alexander.) * = About
    Malcolm IV 'the Maiden' (1142-1165, unmarried.)(Grandson of David I.)
    William 'The Lion' (1143-1214) (Brother of Malcolm IV.)
    Alexander II (1198-1249) (Son of William I.)
    Alexander III (1241 1286)(Son of Alexander II & Marie de Coucy.)
    Margaret 'Maid of Norway' (1283-1290) (Granddaughter of Alexander III.)
    John (Balliol) (1249-1315) (Crowned 1292, abdicated 1296. G g g grands on of David I.)
    Robert I 'The Bruce' (1274-1329)(King 1306-1329) (G g g g grandson of Dav id I.)
    Edward Balliol (King Aug-Dec 1332 & for periods during 1333-1346) (Died 13 63.)
    David II (1324-1371) (Son of Robert I.)
    Robert II (Stewart) (1316-1390) (Grandson of Robert I. Son of Walter Stewa rt & Princess Marjorie Bruce, daughter of Robert I.)
    Robert III (1337*-1406) (Son of Robert II.)
    James I (1393-1437. Murdered.) ) (Son of Robert III.)
    James II (1430-1460. Killed in an explosion.) (Son of James I.)
    James III (1451-1488. Murdered.) (Son of James II.)
    James IV (1473-1513. Killed in Battle of Flodden.) (Son of James III & Pri ncess Margaret of Denmark.)
    James V (1512-1542) (Stewart) (Son of James IV & Margaret Tudor, sist er of Henry VIII of England.)
    Mary Queen of Scots (Stuart) (1542-1587, executed. Abdicated 1567) (Daught er of James V.)
    James VI of Scotland, 1st of England. (1566-1625) (James 1st of Engla nd in 1603.) (Son of Mary.)
    Charles I of Scotland & England. (1600-1649, executed.) (Son of James I a nd Princess Anne of Denmark)

    * = About
    CREATED 9TH PRINCE OF WALES 1504; "OF GREENWICH"; ACCEDED 4/22/1509 (CROWNED WESTMINSTER); RULED FROM 1509-1547
    BIBLIOGRAPHY:
    Cokayne, George Edward, Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom, extant, extinct, or dormant. Gloucester: A Sutton, 1982.

    Paget, Gerald, The Lineage and Ancestry of H.R.H. Prince Charles, Prince of Wales. London: Charles Skilton Ltd, 1977. Nypl ARF+ 78-835.

    Weir, Alison, The Six Wives of Henry VIII. NY: Grove Weidenfeld, 1991. MCL 942.052
    RESEARCH NOTES:
    King of England [Ref: CP III p175] 2nd Duke of Cornwall, of Dukedom cr 1486 [Ref: CP III p442] Duke of Cornwall [Ref: CP III p175] 1st Duke of York, of Dukedom cr 1494 [Ref: CP XII/2 p914] Duke of York [Ref: CP III p175] 1st Earl of Chester, of Earldom cr 1504 [Ref: CP III p175] Earl of Chester [Ref: CP III p175]

    Apr 22 1509: ascended the throne as Henry VIII [Ref: CP III p175, Paget HRHCharles p33]




    Father: Henry VII Tudor, King Of England b: 28 Jan 1457 in Pembroke Castle, Wales
    Mother: Elizabeth Plantagenet b: 11 Feb 1465 in Westminster

    Marriage 1 Anne Boleyn b: 1507 in Blickling Hall, Norfolk
    • Married: 25 Jan 1533 in Whitehall, Or Westminster
    • Note:
      Sources for this Information:
      date: 25 Jan 1533 [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p33, Paget HRHCharles p91] abt 25 Jan 1532/3 [Ref: CP X p404], place: Whitehall or Westminster [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p33], names: [Ref: CP IX p618f], child: [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p101, Paget HRHCharles p33, Weir HenryVIII #2]
    • Change Date: 2 Sep 2011
    Children
    1. Has No Children Elizabeth Tudor, Queen Of England b: 7 Sep 1533 in Greenwich Palace
    2. Has No Children (Unk) Tudor b: 1534
    3. Has No Children ? Tudor b: 1536

    Marriage 2 Catherine Howard b: Abt 1520 in Lambeth
    • Married: 28 Jul 1540 in Palace, Hampton Court
    • Note:
      Sources for this Information:
      date: [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p33] fifth marriage of Henry [Ref: Weir HenryVIII #2], place: [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p33], names: [Ref: CP IX p618f]
      Sources with Inaccurate Information:
      date: 8 Aug 1540 [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p94]
    • Change Date: 2 Sep 2011

    Marriage 3 Catherine b: 16 Dec 1485 in Alcala DE Henare
    • Married: 11 Jun 1509 in Grey Friars, Greenwich
    • Change Date: 2 Sep 2011
    Children
    1. Has No Children ? b: 1510
    2. Has No Children Henry b: 1511
    3. Has No Children ? b: 1513
    4. Has No Children ? b: 1514
    5. Has No Children Mary Tudor b: 18 Feb 1516 in Palace, Greenwich
    6. Has No Children ? b: 1518

    Marriage 4 Jane Seymour b: 1509
    • Married: 30 May 1536 in Wolf Hall, Savernake, Wiltshire
    • Note:
      Sources for this Information:
      date: [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p33, Paget HRHCharles p92] third marriage of Henry [Ref: Weir HenryVIII #2], place: [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p33], child: [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p33, Paget HRHCharles p96, Weir HenryVIII #5]
    • Change Date: 2 Sep 2011
    Children
    1. Has No Children Edward VI Tudor, King Of England b: 12 Oct 1537 in Palace, Hampton Court

    Marriage 5 Katherine Parr b: Abt 1512 in Castle, Kendal, Westmoreland
    • Married: 12 Jul 1543 in Palace, Hampton Court
    • Note:
      Sources for this Information:
      date: [Ref: CP VII p482, Paget HRHCharles p33], place: [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p33]
    • Change Date: 2 Sep 2011

    Marriage 6 Spouse Unknown
    • Married:
    • Change Date: 2 Sep 2011
    Children
    1. Has No Children Henry Fitzroy b: Abt 1519 in Blackmore, Essex

    Marriage 7 Katherine Of Aragon b: 15 Dec 1485 in Alcala DE Henarea
    • Married: 3 Jun 1509 in Grey Friars, Greenwich
    • Note:
      Sources for this Information:
      date: [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p31, Paget HRHCharles p33, Paget HRHCharles p90] first marriage of Henry [Ref: Weir HenryVIII #2] papal disp 11 Jun 1509 [Ref: CP III p442], place: [Ref: CP III p442] Greenwich [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p33], divorced: 1533 [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p90] 23 May 1533 [Ref: CP III p442, Paget HRHCharles p33], child: [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p33, Paget HRHCharles p99, Weir HenryVIII #2]
    • Change Date: 2 Sep 2011
    Children
    1. Has No Children (Dau) Tudor b: 1510
    2. Has No Children Henry Tudor, Prince Of Wales b: 1 Jan 1511 in Richmond Palace
    3. Has No Children (Son) Tudor, Duke Of Cornwall b: Nov 1513 in Richmond Palace
    4. Has No Children Henry Tudor, Duke Of Cornwall b: 1514
    5. Has No Children Mary I Tudor, Queen Of England b: 8 Feb 1516 in Greenwich
    6. Has No Children (Dau) Tudor b: 1518

    Marriage 8 Elizabeth Blount
    • Married: Concubine
    • Note:
      Sources for this Information:
      date: concubine [Ref: CP XII/1 p602]
    • Change Date: 2 Sep 2011

    Marriage 9 Anne Of Cleves b: 22 Sep 1516 in Dusseldorf
    • Married: 6 Jan 1540 in Greenwich
    • Note:
      Sources for this Information:
      date: [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p33, Paget HRHCharles p93] fourth marriage of Henry [Ref: Weir HenryVIII #2], place: [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p33], annulled: 9 Jul 1540 [Ref: Paget HRHCharles p33]
    • Change Date: 2 Sep 2011
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