Name: Edward Montagu
Given Name: Edward
Suffix: 1st Earl Of Sandwich
Birth: 27 Jul 1625
Death: 28 May 1672
Change Date: 16 Aug 2011 at 16:35
Edward Montagu, 1st Earl of Sandwich
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Sir Edward Montagu, 1st Earl of Sandwich, 1625–1672 by Sir Peter Lely, pai nted 1666
Edward Montagu, 1st Earl of Sandwich, KG (27 July 1625 – 28 May 1672) w as a both an English Infantry officer later to become a naval office r. He was the only surviving son of Sir Sidney Montagu, and was broug ht up at Hinchingbrooke House.
He served the Cause of Parliament by raising a regiment of infantry in Ju ne of 1643 and then he went on to serve the Commonwealth of England an d, in 1656 he became a joint General at Sea. After the Restoration he serv ed Charles II as Admiral, commanding the fleet that brought him back fr om exile in May 1660. Two months later, on 12 July 1660, he was created Ba ron Montagu of St Neots, Viscount Hinchinbroke, and Earl of Sandwich. Ki ng Charles also made him a Knight of the Garter and appointed him Mast er of the Great Wardrobe, Admiral of the narrow seas, and Lieutenant Admir al to The Duke of York, Lord High Admiral of England. He carried St. Edwar d's staff at Charles' subsequent coronation.
In the Second Anglo-Dutch War of 1665 to 1667 he fought at the Battle of L owestoft but defeat at the Battle of Vågen led to him being removed from s ervice. He was subsequently reappointed however, and by 1672 at the sta rt of the Third Anglo-Dutch War he was Vice-Admiral of the Blue with the R oyal James as his flagship. At the Battle of Solebay his ship was attack ed by a group of fire ships and was destroyed with the loss of many live s, including Sandwich himself, whose charred body was found washed asho re and only recognizable from the remains of his clothing.
Montagu was the first cousin of the father of Samuel Pepys. Pepys start ed his career as a minor member of the Montagu household and owed his appo intments first to the Wardrobe and then as Clerk of the Acts to the Navy B oard to Montagu's influence. Pepys' diary provides a detailed primary sour ce for Montagu's career in the 1660s.
4 External links
On 7 November 1642, Montagu married Jemima Crew, by whom he had ten childr en:
Edward Montagu, 2nd Earl of Sandwich (1648–1688)
Hon. Sidney Montagu (1650–1727)
Hon. Oliver Montagu (c.1655 –1689)
Hon. John Montagu (c.1655 – 25 February 1729), Dean of Durham
Hon. Charles Montagu, married first Elizabeth Forester, second Sarah Roge rs and had issue by both
Lady Jemima Montagu, married Sir Philip Carteret (d. 1672)
Lady Anne Montagu (d. 14 March 1729), married first Sir Richard Edgcumb e, second Christopher Montagu, elder brother of the Earl of Halifax
Lady Catherine Montagu (c. September 1660 – 15 January 1757), married fir st Nicholas Bacon, second Rev. Balthazar Gardeman
Hon. James Montagu
Lady Paulina Montagu
His Grandson Edward Montagu was the father-in-law of Prime Minister John S tuart, 3rd Earl of Bute.
Descendants of his grandfather Edward Montagu were the ancestors of Pri me Minister Lord North.
Ollard, Richard Lawrence (1994). Cromwell's Earl : a life of Edward Montag u, 1st Earl of Sandwich. London: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-00-255003-2.
Montagu Genealogy. Retrieved on 2006-12-01.
Biography of Edward Montagu, 1st Earl of Sandwich British Civil Wars and C ommonwealth website
The Electronic Calendar of the Carte Papers, 1660-87 The Carte Papers, he ld at the Bodleian Library, include correspondence of Edward Montagu, 1 st Earl of Sandwich
Edward Montagu : his life and family.
Birth and Early years
In 1618 Sir Sydney Montagu married Paula Pepys and moved into the hou se at Barnwell, Northamptonshire.
On the 13th June 1620 Elizabeth Montagu was born at Barnwell. Edward w as born at Barnwell on the 27th July 1625. This was three months after h is older brother Henry had drowned in a pond at 3 years old. As a resul t, Edward, although he was not the firstborn son, was the eldest son.
In 1627 Sir Sydney's brother the 1st Earl of Manchester bought Hinchingbro oke House from Sir Oliver Cromwell. Sir Oliver was Oliver Cromwell's uncl e. The 1st Earl gave this house to Sir Sydney who also still retained t he house at Barnwell. In 1634 the King: Charles I and Henrietta Maria sta yed at Hinchingbrooke House for two nights.
Edward's early schooling was at the same grammar school in Huntingdon th at Oliver Cromwell had gone to. This building is now the Cromwell Museu m. Edward is reported to have been proficient in Mathematics and Astronom y. On the 4th May 1635 Edward was admitted to study law in the Middle Tem ple in London.
On the 17th February 1638 Edward's Mother, Paula, Lady Montagu died. On t he 15th May Elizabeth married Sir Giblet Pickering and moved to Tichmar sh near Thrapston, Northamptonshire.
On the 27th March 1639 Charles I again visited Hinchingbrooke House wh en he was on his way north to fight the Scots in the 1st Bishops' War. An other close friend of Sir Sydney was Oliver Cromwell.
The Civil War Years
On the 7th November 1642 Edward married Jemima Crewe, daughter of the gre at Presbyterian magnate John Crewe. They were married at St. Margaret 's in Westminster. Jemima was 10 days older than Edward. In early 1643 S ir Sydney, a Royalist, retired to the house at Barnwell, leaving Hinchingb rooke to Edward.
At the first meeting of the Eastern Association counties on the 9th Februa ry Edward took down the ÙSArticles of AssociationÙT and the names of the com mittee members. In March Parliament made Edward ÙtDeputy Lieutenant of t he Eastern AssociationÙu. Much of this was certainly due to his mentor - Ol iver Cromwell.
Edward was only 18 years old when he commenced raising his foot regimen t! He was clearly the youngest Parliamentarian Colonel and, later, Maj or General. For the next two years his regiment was always brigaded wi th Colonel John Pickering's. Edward's sister had married John Pickering 's elder brother.
On the 7th January 1644 Sir Sydney married Anne Pey. In early August Edwa rd received information that his father was very ill and Sir Sydney di ed on the 25th September.
On the 13th October 1645 Edward took his seat in Parliament as Member of P arliament for Huntingdon. In 1646 the King surrendered himself to the Sco ts around Newark, Nottinghamshire. The King was handed over to the Engli sh in January 1647 who imprisoned him in Holdenby House, Northamptonshir e. On the 3rd June 1647 Cornet Joyce and other Parliamentarian troops abd ucted the King from Holdenby House. Whilst on their way to a rendezvous w ith the rest of the army at Newmarket they stayed briefly at Hinchingbroo ke House. Jemima was present but it is not known if Edward was there. S ir Thomas Herbert, one of the KingÙus advisors, stated that "..... the Ki ng was nobly treated here ..... with much honour and affection, as were al so the lords and other commissioners....."
The second Civil War started in 1647. Various forces rose in support of t he Royalist cause. None however co-ordinated with each other and were sub sequently dealt with very easily. On the 6th July 1648 Edward was prese nt as a 'gentleman volunteer' with the parliamentarian troops under Gibbo ns who defeated the Royalists at St. Neot's under the Earl of Holland.
There is much evidence to indicate that Edward was not a 'politician' li ke his mentor Cromwell and instead preferred 'executive' duties within t he parliaments of the next 4 - 5 years.
In 1656 Edward was made joint General-at-Sea with Robert Blake. By this t ime he had employed in his service a distant cousin - Samuel Pepys. Edwa rd continued as a General-at-Sea/Admiral until 1665. Edward helped Pep ys in his earlier career in Naval administration. Pepys is recognis ed as the 'father' of the Royal Navy.
Edward was instrumental in bringing Charles II back into England in 16 60 although why he chose to do this is not certain. Richard Ollard in h is book on Montagu entitled 'Cromwell's Earl' suggests that this was do ne in order to prevent anarchy. Edward was made the Earl of Sandwich by C harles II. The ship which brought Charles II back, Edward's flagship, w as renamed from Naseby to Royal Charles.
Edward continued as the only non royal Admiral after the Restoration - t he other two admirals were Prince Rupert and the Duke of York, the futu re James II.
Death of Edward Montagu
Edward died at the battle of Solebay (Southwold Bay) in May 1672 - this w as part of the 3rd Anglo-Dutch war. His flagship, the Royal James, of 1 00 guns was set on fire by Dutch fireships and eventually sank. Edward, a ccording to various sources, refused to jump into the sea and was last se en stood on the quarter-deck. His body was washed ashore two weeks late r.
There are other excellent articles on Edward Montagu and his life can be f ound on the website of his former home at Hinchingbrooke House own websit e. They also have a biography of Edward and his achievements.
Jemima Crewe b: 17 Jul 1625
7 Nov 1642
- Change Date:
16 Aug 2011
- Edward Montagu b: 3 Jan 1648
- Oliver Montagu b: Abt 1655
- John Montagu b: Abt 1655
- Charles Montagu
- Jemima Montagu
- Anne Montagu
- Catherine Montagu
- James Montagu
- Paulina Montagu
- Sydney Montagu b: 1650